CBSE Class 12 Notes

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CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Notes

The syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Accountancy comprises of the following chapters. We have prepared various notes along with detailed questions and their solution for 12th Accountancy relevant for the student of Accounts class 12, who may be studying in CBSE Board.

Accountancy Part I 

Chapter 1 – Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation

  1. Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit Organisation
  2. Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
  3. Receipt and Payment Account
  4. Income and Expenditure Account
  5. Balance Sheet
  6. Some Peculiar Items

Chapter 2 – Accounting for Partnership:  Basic Concepts

  1.  Nature of Partnership
  2.  Partnership Deed
  3.  Special Aspects of Partnership Accounts
  4.  Maintenance of Capital Accounts of Partners
  5.  Distribution of Profit among Partners
  6.  Guarantee of Profit to a Partner – Click here for our Video on Guarantee of Profits to a Partner
  7.  Past Adjustments

Chapter 3 Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm – Admission  of a Partner

  1. Modes of Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm
  2. Admission of a New Partner
  3. New Profit Sharing Ratio
  4. Sacrificing Ratio
  5. Goodwill
  6. Adjustment for Accumulated Profits and Losses and Capitals
  7. Revaluation of Assets and Reassessment of Liabilities
  8. Change in Profit Sharing Ratio among the Existing Partners

For more example and Solutions on Distribution of Profits amongst Partners, you can Click Here

Chapter 4 – Reconstitution of a Partnership Firm   

  1. Retirement/Death of a Partner
  2. Ascertaining the Amount Due to Retiring/Deceased Partner
  3. New Profit Sharing Ratio
  4. Gaining Ratio
  5. Treatment of Goodwill
  6. Adjustment for Revaluation of Assets and Liabilities/Adjustment of Accumulated Profits and Losses
  7. Disposal of Amount Due to Retiring Partner
  8. Adjustment of Partners’ Capitals
  9. Death of a Partner

Chapter 5 Dissolution of Partnership Firm

  1. Dissolution of Partnership
  2. Dissolution of a Firm
  3. Settlement of Accounts
  4. Accounting Treatment

Accountancy Part II

Chapter  1 – Accounting for Share Capital

  1. Company and its Characteristics
    Company formation
  2. Kinds of Companies
  3. Share Capital of a Company
  4. Nature and Classes of Shares
  5. Issue of Shares
  6. Accounting Treatment
  7. Forfeiture of Shares

Chapter  2 –  Issue and Redemption of Debentures

  1. Meaning of Debentures
  2. Distinction between Shares and Debentures
  3. Types of Debentures
  4. Issue of Debentures
  5. Over Subscription of Debentures
  6. Terms of Issue of Debentures
  7. Interest on Debentures
  8. Writing off Discount/Loss on Issue of Debentures
  9. Redemption of Debentures

Chapter  3 –  Financial Statements of a Company

  1. Meaning and Nature of Financial Statements
  2. Objectives of Financial Statements
  3. Types of Financial Statements
  4. Uses and Importance of Financial Statements
  5. Limitations of Financial Statements

Chapter  4 –  Analysis of Financial Statements

  1. Meaning of Analysis of Financial Statements
  2. Significance of Analysis of Financial Statements
  3. Objectives of Analysis of Financial Statements
  4. Tools of Analysis of Financial Statements
  5. Comparative Statements
  6. Comparative Balance Sheet
  7. Limitations of Financial Analysis

Chapter  5 – Accounting Ratios

  1. Meaning of Accounting Ratios
  2. Objectives of Ratio Analysis
  3. Advantages of Ratio Analysis
  4. Limitations of Ratio Analysis
  5. Types of Ratios
  6. Liquidity Ratios
  7. Solvency Ratios 
  8. Activity (or Turnover) Ratio
  9. Profitability Ratios

Chapter 6 – Cash Flow Statement

  1. Objectives and Benefits of Cash Flow Statement
  2. Cash, Cash Equivalents and Cash flows
  3. Ascertaining Cash Flow from Operating Activities
  4. Ascertainment of Cash Flow from Investing
  5. Cash Flow and Financing Activities
  6. Preparation of Cash Flow Statement

CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Notes

The syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Notes comprises of the following chapters. We have prepared various notes along with detailed questions and their solution for 12th Business Studies NCERT relevant for the student of Business Studies Class 12 NCERT, who may be studying in CBSE Board.

Business Studies Part 1

Chapter 1 – Nature and Significance of Management Class 12

  1. Characteristics of Management
  2. Objectives of Management
  3. Management as an Art
  4. Management as Science
  5. Management as Profession
  6. Levels and Functions of Management
  7. Coordination — The Essence of Management

Chapter 2 Principles of Management

  1. Concept of Principles of Management
  2. Taylor’s Scientific Management
  3. Fayol’s Principles of Management

Chapter 3 Business Environment

  1. Introduction & Meaning & Importance of Business Environment
  2. Dimensions of Business Environment
  3. Indian Industrial Policies

Chapter 4 Planning

  1. Introduction, Meaning, Importance, Features & Limitations of Planning
  2. Planning Process
  3. Types of Plan

Chapter 5 Organising

  1. Introduction to Organisation and its Importance
  2. Steps in the process of organising
  3. Organisation Structure
  4. Delegation
  5. Decentralisation

Chapter 6 Staffing

  1. Need and Importance of Staffing
  2. Staffing as a part of Human resource
  3. Introduction to recruitment
  4. Training and development

Chapter 7 Directing

  1. Directing – Introduction, Meaning, Importance & Principles
  2. Supervision – Elements of Directing
  3. Motivation – Element of Directing
    Incentives – Types of Incentives
    Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation
  4. Leadership
  5. Communication
    Formal and Informal Communication
    Barriers to Communication

Chapter 8 Controlling

  1. Meaning of Controlling
  2. Techniques of Managerial Control

Business Studies Part 2

Chapter 9 Financial Management

  1. Business Finance
  2. Objectives of Financial Management
  3. Financial Planning
  4. Financial decisions in Financial Management
  5. Capital Structure in Financial Management

Chapter 10 Financial Markets

  1. Financial Market
  2. Money Market
  3. Capital Market
  4. Stock Exchange
  5. National stock exchange of India (NSE)
  6. Securities and exchange board of India (SEBI)

Chapter 11 Marketing

  1. Marketing Management
  2. Marketing Management Philosophies
  3. Functions of marketing
  4. Marketing mix
  5. Products – Classification of Products
  6. Branding
  7. Packaging – Levels , Functions & Importance
  8. Labelling
  9. Pricing – Factors affecting Price of a Product or Service
  10. Components of Physical Distribution
  11. Channels of Distribution
  12. Advertising – Benefits, Limitations, Objections
  13. Personal selling
  14. Sales promotion
  15. Publicity – Characteristics and Objectives

Chapter 12 Consumer Protection

  1. Consumer Protection Act, 1986
  2. Role of Consumer Organizations and NGOs

CBSE Class 12 Economics Notes

The syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Economics comprises of the following chapters. We have prepared various notes, relevant for the student of Economics Class 12, who may be studying in CBSE Board. Each of these notes have been given under the particular chapter, which you can click and read : –

Microeconomics Class 12 Notes

Chapter 1 – Introduction

  1. A Simple Economy
  2. Central problems of an Economy
  3. Organisation of Economic Activities
  4. The Centrally Planned Economy
  5. The Market Economy
  6. Positive and Normative Economics
  7. Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

Other Additional Notes

Chapter 2 – Theory of Consumer Behavior

  1. Utility
  2. Measurement of Utility
  3. The Consumer’s Budget
  4. Optimal Choice of the Consumer
  5. Demand
    • Demand Curve and the Law of Demand
    • Deriving a Demand Curve from Indifference Curves and Budget Constraints
    • Normal and Inferior Goods
    • Substitutes and Complements
    • Shifts in the Demand Curve
    • Movements along the Demand Curve and Shifts 26 in the Demand Curve
  6. Market Demand
  7. Elasticity of Demand
    • Elasticity along a Linear Demand Curve
    • Factors Determining Price Elasticity of Demand for a Good
    • Elasticity and Expenditure

Chapter 3 – Production and Costs

  1. Production Function
  2. The Short Run and the Long Run
  3. Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product
    • Total Product
    • Average Product
    • Marginal Product
  4. The Law of Diminishing Marginal Product and the Law of Variable Proportions
  5. Shapes of Total Product, Marginal Product and Average Product Curves
  6. Returns to Scale
  7. Costs

Chapter 4 – The Theory of the Firm under Perfect Competition

  1. Perfect Competition: Defining Features
  2. Revenue
  3. Profit Maximisation
    • Condition 1
    • Condition 2
    • Condition 3
    • The Profit Maximisation Problem: Graphical Representation
  4. Supply Curve of a Firm
    • Short Run Supply Curve of a Firm
    • Long Run Supply Curve of a Firm
    • The Shut Down Point
    • The Normal Profit and Break-even Point
  5. Determinants of a Firm’s Supply Curve
    • Technological Progress
    • Input Prices
  6. Market Supply Curve
  7. Price Elasticity of Supply

Other Additional Notes

Chapter 5 – Market Equilibrium

  1. Equilibrium, Excess Demand, Excess Supply
    • Market Equilibrium: Fixed Number of Firms
    • Market Equilibrium: Free Entry and Exit
  2. Applications
    • Price Ceiling
    • Price Floor

Chapter 6 – Non-Competitive Markets

  1. Simple Monopoly in the Commodity Market
    • Market Demand Curve is the Average Revenue Curve
    • Total, Average and Marginal Revenues
    • Marginal Revenue and Price Elasticity of Demand
    • Short Run Equilibrium of the Monopoly Firm
  2. Other Non-perfectly Competitive Markets
    • Monopolistic Competition
    • How do Firms behave in Oligopoly?

Macroeconomics Class 12 Notes

Chapter 1 – Introduction

  1. Emergence of Macroeconomics
  2. Context of the Present Book of Macroeconomics

Other Additional Notes

Chapter 2 – National Income Accounting

  1. Some Basic Concepts of Macroeconomics
  2. Circular Flow of Income and Methods of Calculating National Income
    • The Product or Value Added Method
    • Expenditure Method
    • Income Method
    • Factor Cost, Basic Prices and Market Prices
  3. Some Macroeconomic Identities
  4. Nominal and Real GDP
  5. GDP and Welfare

Other Additional Notes

Chapter 3 – Money and Banking

  1. Functions of Money
  2. Demand for Money and Supply of Money
    • Demand for Money
    • Supply of Money
  3. Money Creation by Banking System
    • Balance Sheet of a Fictional Bank
    • Limits to Credit Creation and Money Multiplier
  4. Policy Tools to Control Money Supply

Other Additional Notes

Chapter 4 – Determination of Income and Employment

  1. Aggregate Demand and its Components
    • Consumption
    • Investment
  2. Determination of Income in Two-sector Model
    • Determination of Equilibrium Income in the Short Run
    • Macroeconomic equilibrium with price level fixed
    • Effect of an autonomous change in aggregate demand on income and output
    • The Multiplier Mechanism
  3. Some More Concepts

Chapter 5 – Government Budget and The Economy

  1. Government Budget – Meaning and its Components
  2. Balanced, Surplus and Deficit Budget
    • Measures of Government Deficit

Chapter 6 – Open Economy Macroeconomics

  1. The Balance of Payments
    • Current Account
    • Capital Account
    • Balance of Payments Surplus and Deficit
  2. The Foreign Exchange Market
    • Foreign Exchange Rate
    • Determination of the Exchange Rate
    • Merits and Demerits of Flexible and Fixed Exchange Rate Systems
    • Managed Floating

Other Additional Notes

We are also providing Economics MCQs, for chapters which are covered in Class 12 Economics as well as applicable for entrance examinations like CA CPT, CS Foundation and other equivalent examinations in India and other countries. Each Economics MCQs Test contains 10 questions.  Answers to Economics MCQs are available at the end of the last question.

Chapter NumberTopic Name
Chapter 1Introduction to Micro Economics
Chapter 2Theory of Consumer Behaviour
Chapter 2Theory of Demand
Chapter 2Theory of Supply
Chapter 3Theory of Production
Chapter 3Theory of Cost
Chapter 4Market
Chapter 4Determination of Price
Chapter 4Price and Output Determination
Chapter 5Role of Different Sectors
Chapter 5Indian Economy
Chapter 5National Income
Chapter 5Tax System
Chapter 6Population
Chapter 6Poverty
Chapter 6Unemployment
Chapter 6Infrastructural Challenges
Chapter 6Inflation
Chapter 6Budget and Fiscal Deficits
Chapter 7Economic Reforms in India
Chapter 7Liberalisation, Privatisation and Disinvestment
Chapter 7Globalisation
Chapter 8Money
Chapter 8Commercial Banks
Chapter 8Reserve Bank of India (RBI)

Instructions to attempt the Economics MCQs

  • Each Economics MCQs Test contains 10 questions.
  • Answers to Economics MCQs are available at the end of the last question.  
  • Each MCQ has 3 to 4 options of which one is correct;
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