Characteristics of management: Management is the process of managing, controlling and administering the activities, affairs, departments, levels etc. of the organization. It is thus the environment in which the individuals and teams can work to achieve the pre determined target effectively and efficiently. Traditionally, it was assumed that primary function of management is to get things done but it is now clearly evident that management involves other aspects too.
On analysing thoroughly various definitions of management, there are some characteristics that emerge and they are as following:
1. Management is a goal oriented process: Characteristics of management
Management means to manage things so that the efforts can be put towards a common goal. Any organization has stated purpose, goals and targets etc. which are to be achieved. These cannot be achieved until every member of the organization is not working accordingly towards it. While properly planning, the objectives are already set and then the management helps in achieving those objectives within set time frame. Every organization has different objectives but management helps in achieving any type of objective.
For example: Any amusement park would have the objective to get more families, schools, friends group etc to come for picnic or enjoyment, but any educational institution would have the objective of imparting education to more and more children.
2. Management is all pervasive:
Management is a phenomenon which is universal. It does not depend on the type of organization whether it is a profit making firm or any non profit organization, management is required for both of them. Any classification of organizations such as economic, social, political, retail, wholesale, etc. requires management of things, management of people, management of processes etc. Even in different countries, the way management is done is the same. There may be some difference because of the culture, tradition, beliefs, history etc.
For example: Reliance industries require management and apple technology industry also requires management but the difference only lies in the way they are managed.
3. Management is multi dimensional: Characteristics of management
Management is a complex process which does not involves only one thing but has series of stages such as management of things or work, management of people and management of processes or operations.
- Management of work: Every organization is set to perform some task. These tasks are aligned with the objectives and aims of the organization. Different organizations have different tasks to be performed. For example: any retail store would have the task of attracting more customers, any schools would have the task to impart education, any film production unit would have a task to entertain people etc. This can be done in many forms such as answering the question to what is to be done, how it is to be done, giving solutions to the problems, establishing budgets, assigning duties and responsibilities etc.
- Management of people : Human resource management is the next thing which comes up. Humans are the greatest resource or an asset of an organization because things can be planned but who will perform for it is the greatest question. Although there is increase in technology but still every organization needs humans to manage things properly. Managing people involves managing the employees as individuals and managing the employees as a whole team.
- Management of operations: Every organization has some or the other operation such as production, sales or providing services. Management of operations involves coordination between management of work and management of people. For example: when an organization is a production unit then it needs to manage the production properly according to the demand and thus management of operation is required but here also there is need for people to manage it.
4. Management is a continuous process:
Management is a continuous process as it is required at every level and in every function of management. There are different functions of management such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, each function requires management and are performed all the time. It is not possible to do a particular task once and for all, it requires management and up gradation regularly.
For example: While setting up an organization planning is done but planning is done regularly even after setting up the firm. It is a continuous process and a never ending process.
5. Management is a group activity: Characteristics of management
Management is a group activity as it involves many people. Every individual has his or her own needs and requirements but when they work in an organization together as a team they need to work in a direction of achieving organizational goal. Any organization cannot run in isolation and any organization cannot run without people, similarly management cannot be performed in isolation and thus requires management of group in different departments and divisions.
6. Management is a dynamic function:
An organization has to deal with its environment. It works in an environment which keeps on changing. External environment of an organization involves the social, political, economic, legal and technological factors. These keep on changing and thus the way things are managed are to be changed accordingly.
For example: there may be change in the government party and it can change the policies and rules which may affect the business severely. An organizational unit would have to deal with it efficiently so to avoid losses. They may be a new technology in market and then the business would have to upgrade itself accordingly and this requires proper management of work and people. McDonalds, a fast food giant, changed its working and menu according to the Indian market and thus succeeded.
7. Management is an intangible force: Characteristics of management
Management is a process which is intangible, it cannot be seen or touched but its presence and absence can be thoroughly felt. When there is absence of management then the organization seems to be a chaos such as unmet targets, no proper authority – responsibility channel, no proper distribution of work etc. But when there is presence of management it can be clearly seen that the targets are met, work is properly progressing, employees are satisfied, orderliness is present etc.
Management aims at achieving various objectives which requires proper allocation of resources such as men, money, material and machinery. A proper method is also required. All this is possible only when there is proper management of these resources. Management is an art and this art can only look great when it is in order and not in chaos.