Characteristics of management
Management is the process of managing, controlling and administering the activities, affairs, departments, levels etc. of the organization. It is thus the environment in which the individuals and teams can work , to achieve the pre-determined target effectively and efficiently. Traditionally it was assumed that primary function of management is to get things done, but it is now clearly evident that management involves other aspects too.
On analysing thoroughly various definitions of management, there are some characteristics that emerge and they are as following : –
Management is a goal oriented process
Management means to manage things so that the efforts can be put towards a common goal. Every organization has certain stated purpose, goals and targets etc. , which are required to be achieved. These cannot be achieved until every member of the organization is working towards their achievements . At the stage of planning, the objectives of the organisations are already set, and thereafter the management helps in achieving those objectives within the pre-decided time frame. Every organization has different objectives, but management helps in achieving any type of objective.
For example : – Any amusement park would have the objective to get more families, schools, friends group etc to come to the park for picnic or enjoyment. An educational institution would have the objective of imparting education to more and more number of children.
Management is all pervasive
Management is a universal phenomenon. It does not depend on the type of organization (partnership, company ) or whether it is a for-profit firm or any non-profit charitable organization. Each one of them requires management. Any classification of organizations such as economic, social, political, retail, wholesale, etc. requires management of things, management of people, management of processes etc. Even in different countries, the way management is done is the same. There may be some difference because of the culture, tradition, beliefs, history etc.
For example: Both Reliance industries, and Apple Inc. require management , although the difference lies in the way they are managed.
Management is multi dimensional
Management is a complex process , which involves series of stages and aspects such as : –
- Management of things or work,
- Management of people ; and
- Management of processes or operations.
Management of work
Every organization is set to perform some task. These tasks are aligned with the objectives and aims of the organization. Different organizations have different tasks to be performed. For example: A retail store would have the task of attracting more customers, a school would have the task to impart education, a film production unit would have a task to entertain people etc. This can be done in many forms such as answering the question as to what is to be done, how it is to be done, giving solutions to the problems, establishing budgets, assigning duties and responsibilities etc.
Management of people
Human resource management is the next thing which comes up. Humans, are the greatest resource or an asset of an organization , because they perform all the things that are planned. Although there is significant advancement of technology, still every organization needs humans to manage things properly. Managing people involves managing the employees as individuals, and managing the employees as a whole team.
Management of operations
Every organization has several different operation such as production, sales or providing services. Management of operations involves coordination between management of work, and management of people. For example: When an organization is engaged in production of goods, the production unit needs to manage the production properly in line with the demand for the product but it also needs to manage the people, who would be looking after the production.
Management is a continuous process:
Management is a continuous process as it is required at every level and in every function of organisation. There are different functions of management such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Each function requires management and are performed all the time. It is not possible to do a particular task once and for all, and every task requires management and up gradation regularly.
For example: While setting up an organization, the management plans the business operations. However, even after set up, the planning is required on a continuous and is never ending process.
Management is a group activity
Management is a group activity, as it involves many people. Every individual has his or her own needs and requirements , but when they work together in an organization as team, they need to work to achieve organizational goal. Any organization cannot run in isolation, and it cannot run without people. Similarly, management cannot be performed in isolation and thus requires management of group in different departments and divisions.
Management is a dynamic function
An organization has to deal with its environment, which keeps on changing. External environment of an organization involves the social, political, economic, legal and technological factors, which keeps on changing and thus the way things are managed are to be changed accordingly.
For example: There may be change in the Government, and the new Government can change the policies and rules , which may affect the business severely. An organizational unit would have to deal with it efficiently so to avoid losses. They may be a new technology in market and then the business would have to upgrade itself accordingly. For example, McDonalds, a fast food giant, changed its working and menu according to the Indian market and thus succeeded.
Management is an intangible force
Management is a process which is intangible, it cannot be seen or touched but its presence and absence can be thoroughly felt. When there is absence of management, then the organization seems to be a chaos such as unmet targets, no proper authority – responsibility channel, no proper distribution of work etc. But when there is presence of management it can be clearly seen that the targets are met, work is properly progressing, employees are satisfied, orderliness is present etc.
Management aims at achieving various objectives which requires proper allocation of resources such as men, money, material and machinery. A proper method is also required. All this is possible only when there is proper management of these resources. Management is an art and this art can only look great when it is in order and not in chaos.