Motivation is an element of directing. It means the simulation, inducement or incitement a person to act in a certain way. Motivation pushes people to work in a way so that the targets are achieved. In an organization, motivation is very important so that people work towards achieving organizational goals. Many a times, people do not work to the fullest of their potential or they do not feel like doing so, this is because they lack the motivation to do so. When they are motivated then they get a push in right direction. This push element can be different things like increased salary, bonus, incentives, recognition, better working conditions, promotion etc.
There are three important terms which should be clearly understood:
- Motive: motive means a reason to do something. It is the cause or the reason to do particular task. It arises out of the needs and wants of people. When they want something such as a car, then the person will work towards earning more so that he or she can buy a car. In this case a car becomes the motive. Motive is very important because it becomes the goal point.
- Motivation: motivation is the process in which people are simulated in a certain way so that they work towards achieving or fulfilling their motive.
- Motivators: motivator is the technique. It is the method or tool used to motivate the people i.e. the tool which is used to simulate the people so that they can put efforts in getting to the gaol point.
Features of motivation
From various definitions given by the experts there are certain features which are derived, they are:
Motivation is an internal feeling
The motive of an individual for which he or she works hard to achieve are all internal desires and needs of the person. Motivation itself is an internal feeling. When the urge to do something increases internally then the person becomes excited to do that particular task.
Motivation leads to goal directed behaviour
Motivation is for the urges, needs, desires, wants, drives and aspirations which are focused on a point which can be called a focal point towards which the person wants to move. This focal point is the motive and the person who is motivated enough which only work in a single direction and thus goal directed behaviour is achieved through motivation.
Motivation can be either positive or negative
Positive motivators mean that the person is motivated to do something because there is certain reward attached such as promotion, increased pay, bonus, recognition etc. While negative motivators are the ones which create a fear, if certain work is not done then the result can be negative, such as demotion, punishment, loss of job etc.
Motivation is a complex process
Humans are different. Their expectations and desires from things can be different. These different kinds of aspirations will require different kind of motivation. One person may be motivated to do a task because he will get recognition while other may be doing that task because she will get increased salary.
Importance of motivation
Motivation improves performance
Motivation plays an important role in increasing the productivity and improving the performance. People any not always do their best or put their maximum efforts and they need to be guided from time to time. This guidance is very important so that their efforts are united in a single direction i.e. the direction of goals.
Motivation simulates action
People lose energy and sometimes they are not up for putting the maximum efforts and they become indifferent. This indifferent behaviour or negative behaviour can be changed into positive one by effective motivation. Proper motivator should be chosen before motivating a person. A good motivator such as recognition, raise in pay, promotion, good relationship with superior, etc can turn this negative behaviour into a positive one.
Reduction in employee turnover
Employee turnover is harmful for an organization. It will require more recruitment and thus increase in cost and goodwill of the company will also be affected. There are various reasons for an employee to leave an organization. It includes lack of proper working conditions, less than expected salary, unfriendly or not so peaceful working environment, lack of recognition for good work etc. When an organization addresses these areas then there will be reduction in employee turnover and employees will be loyal to the organization.
Reduction in absenteeism
Reasons for increased absenteeism are also same. The employee may find the working conditions not up to mark, lack of recognition, increased work load etc. These areas should be identified and worked upon so that the employee does not find it difficult to work in an organization.
Introduction of changes can be made smoothly
Every organization works in a dynamic environment and this environment undergo changes on a regular basis. To deal with these changes it is very important to be up to date and make changes accordingly in an organization. Employees of the organization may resist change. Proper motivation will help the superiors to guide the subordinates to understand the need for the change and thus it will be easy for the management to introduce changes thereby.
There is an unsatisfied need of an individual which he or she wants to satisfy. This need can be anything which a person wants to achieve.
When there is an unsatisfied need and the person wants to satisfy it, till the time is gets satisfied the person is in extreme tension and thinks about the ways through which it can be satisfied.
There are drives or motives which prompts the person to act in a certain way so that the unsatisfied need is satisfied. They are the ways. The ways which the person will take.
The search behaviour starts when the person is motivated enough to turn that unsatisfied desire or need into satisfaction. He or she starts to search the methods in which they will act so that they can reach to the targeted location.
When the person works hard enough by putting all the efforts into something so that the need is fulfilled then the results will be there and goals will be attained.
Reduction in tension
Finally when the need is fulfilled then the tension which was there during an unsatisfied need will be reduced and the person can focus on other needs.
For example: if the person is in need so some water and there is no water nearby. That person will be extremely thirsty which will create tension and unsatisfied need. This will drive his actions towards search of water and when he will find any source of water he will drink it and get satisfied which will reduce his thirst and tension.