NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations (Social Science), contains solutions to various questions in Exercise for Chapter 10. At the end of the Solutions, all the keywords and Notes which are important to understand From Eighteenth Century Political Formations Class 7 History, have been explained in a simple and easy to understand manner. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 7 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations– Solutions to Question 1 to Question 3
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations– Solutions to Question 3 to Question 6
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations– Solutions to Question 6 to Question 9
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations– Solutions to Question 9 to Question 12
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations– Definition of Keywords-Subadari, Dal Khalsa, Misl, Faujdari, Ijaradari and Chauth&Sardeshmukhi.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations Exercises includes – Match the following, Fill in the blanks, True/False and Question/Answers which helps you to understand the topic covered in Eighteenth Century Political Formations Class 7 History (Social Science), in a better manner to help you to score good marks in your examinations.
NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations – NCERT Exercises
Match the following:
Fill in the blanks
1.Aurangzeb fought a protracted war in the ___________.
2.Umara and jagirdars constituted powerful sections of the Mughal _____________.
3.Asaf Jah founded the Hyderabad state in _____________.
4.The founder of Awadh state was __________.
4.Burhanul Mulk Saadat Khan
State whether true or false
1.Nadir Sha invaded Bengal
2.Sawai raja Jai Singh was the ruler of Indore
3.Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
4.Poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.
What were the offices held by Saadat Khan?
- Saadat Khan was the founder of the state of Awadh and was appointed for the post of its subadar in 1722.
- Helater came to control a number of the important offices like thesubadari, Diwani and Faujdari and was also was given the responsibility of managing the financial military and political affairs of the state which meant concentration of power into a single individual’s hand leading to an overall hegemony of power by him.
Why did the Nawab of Awadh and Bengal try to do away with the Jagirdari system?
- Both the Nawabs of Bengal and Awadh wanted to get rid of the Mughal influence in their states. The system of jagirdari was an instrument through which Mughals extended their power to the provinces.
- Hence the most credible way to reduce the active Mughal influence was to reduce the number of Jagirdari holdings.
- The Nawabs tried to get rid of the Mughal Jagirdars and tried to install their sycophants in their place.
- A system of continuous check and balance of the revenue records was adopted to prevent theduplicitous revenue assessment.
- The task of revenue assessment was now given over to the ijaradars or tax farmers through the way of bidding.
- In Bengal, the Zamindars were subjected to revision and stricter payment of dues was enforced, which in turn made them rely on moneylenders for dues.
How were the Sikhs organized in the eighteenth century?
- The center piece of Sikh organization laid the institution of Khalsa that was promulgated in 1699 which rose in rebellion against the Mughal authority, under both Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Bahadur.
- The Sikhs then organized themselves into misls and jathas which were later organized under the head of the dal Khalsa as a fighting unit.
- These units then procured collective decisions under the name of the Gurus and were called gurmatas.
- They offered protection in the name of rachis wherein the peasants offered 20% of their produce in return for protection from the Sikh bands.
- The Khalsa believed that their destiny was to rule which was codified in the slogan of “raj karegaKhalsa”.
- The Khalsa, because of its directorial abilities possessed as a threat to the Afghans, Mughals and the Rajputs. They minted their own coin in 1765 to mark their independence and sovereignty.
Why did the Marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
- The Marathas expanded their control from the deccan to include parts that were formerly controlled by the Mughals.
- Their aim was to increase sources of revenue and diminute the Mughal influence in the subcontinent.
- The Marathas incapacitated the fortified Mughal cities and raided them, thereby bringing them effectively under the Maratha influence and extracting taxes and tributes.
- This can be understood in the fact of the annexation of Gujarat and Malwa which were two high revenue generating provinces under the Mughals.
What were the policies adopted by Asaf Jah to strengthen his position?
- Asaf Jah, like many other Nawabs of the time took independent decisions as the ruler (Governor) or Hyderabad and slowly accumulated power in his hands.
- He was an important member of Farukh Siyar’s court and used his position to effectively engage skilled warriors and administrators and sent them to Hyderabad.
- Even though he was formally still a servant of the Mughal emperor, Asaf Jah was able to set up a virtually free Nawabi in Hyderbad. He subsequently took over the revenue and political administration of Hyderabad under his own command.
- The Mughal ruler had nominal and symbolic say whereas Asaf Jah continued to take over the operative rule of the province.
Do you think merchants and bankers today have the kind of influence they had in the eighteenth century?
Merchants and bankers held a lot of power as ijaradars and moneylender since the eighteenth century. However, in the present scenario, with the imminence of a democratically elected government the situation has significantly changed.
The power is now exerted by bigger corporations and power houses in what the government does and in policy decisions. Thus, the role has shifted but with substantial changes.
Did any of the kingdoms mentioned in this chapter develop in your state? If so, In what ways do you think life in the state would have been different in the eighteenth century from what it is in the twenty-first century?
Creative answer students are requested to try it themselves.
HINT: For this answer, any particular regional kingdom has to be selected and the contrast has to be made with the present situation. The comparison can be drawn in terms of the primacy any group received, the culture of patronage, the evolving tastes and preferences and the structure of polity.
Find out more about the architecture and culture associated with the new courts of any of the following Awadh, Bengal or Hyderabad.
Under the Awadhnawabs a mixed composite culture into being.. The Bara Imabara is one such example. Lucknow reached new level of culinary heights with the patronage that was being given to the cooks and several new recipes and dishes appeared. Dances like Kathak were heavily supported under rulers like Wajid Ali Shah, as was music. A new gharana developed under the Nawabs of Awadh. Textile and handiwork like that of chikankari and finely made cloths also received a lot of attention.
Collect popular tales about rulers from any one of the following groups of the people: the Rajputs, Jats, Sikhs or Marathas.
Creative answer can be modified by students accordingly.
The story of Sawai Madho Sing of Jaipur is an interesting one. He emanated throne following the suicide of his brother Ishwari Singh who used venom along with his harem to kill himself. Madho Singh took over the reigns under the loom of a Maratha threat. He invited the Marathas to dinner where he offered them poisoned food however, the Marathas evaded successfully. The next day he killed the 5000 Marathas who were captured within Jaipur.
Topics Covered in Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations Class 7 History (Social Science)
- The Crisis of the Empire and the Later Mughals
- Emergence of New States
- The Old Mughal Provinces
- The Watan Jagirs of the Rajputs
- Seizing Independence
- The Sikhs
- The Marathas
- The Jats
Important Terms Relevant for NCERT Solutions for Class 7 History Chapter 10 – Eighteenth Century Political Formations :
Subadari – The subdars were the provincial governors of the Mughal administration who were given provinces called subas.
Dal Khalsa – The combined forces of the misl and the jaathas came to be known as the Dal Khalsa or the Grand Army.
Misl- Misls were bands of Sikh warriors.
Faujdari- This was the office of the Mughal military commander.
Ijaradari- The practice of revenue farming wherein revenue units were given to the highest bidders, usually merchants and bankers with rights over revenue collection.
Chauth & Sardeshmuki- These were the twin taxes that were collected by the Marthas over their territories.