**NCERT Text Books for Class 1 to 12 are given below. Please select the class to view the NCERT Books. **

# ncert

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Environmental Studies Class 5 NCERT Syllabus

### ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES – Class V

**1. Family and Friends**

**1.1 RELATIONSHIPS**

- Family tree
- Shifting from place to place
- Who laughs the loudest?
- Our likes and dislikes
- Feeling to read

**1.2 WORK AND PLAY**

- Team games – your heroes
- Local games/martial arts
- Blow hot blow cold
- Clean work – dirty work?

**1.3 ANIMALS**

- How animals find their food?
- What we take from animals?
- Why is the tiger in danger?
- People who depend on animals

**1.4 PLANTS**

- Growing plants
- Forests and forest people
- Protected trees
- Plants that have come from far

**2. Food**

- When food gets spoilt
- Who produces the food we eat?
- What did people grow earlier?
- When people do not get food
- Our mouth – tastes and even digests food!
- Food for plants?

**3. Shelter**

- Why different houses
- A shelter for everyone?
- Ants live in colonies?
- Times of emergency

**4. Water**

- Water from where in earlier times?
- Water flow
- Plants and animals in water
- What floats, sinks or mixes?
- Mosquitoes and malaria

**5. Travel**

- Petrol or diesel
- Rough and tough
- Ride on a spacecraft
- Oldest buildings

**6. Things we Make and Do**

- Growing Food

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Environmental Studies Class 4 NCERT Syllabus

### ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES – Class IV

**1. Family and Friends**

**1.1 RELATIONSHIPS**

- Your mother as a child
- Where do babies come from?
- My extended family
- Feeling around with eyes shut

**1. 2 Work and play**

- Fun and fights at play!
- How they learnt their skills
- Fun at the fair/Circus

**1.3 Animals**

- Animals and their friends
- Who is attracted to flowers?
- Long ears or short?

**1.4 PLANTS**

- Roots of plants
- Flowers
- Whom do trees belong to?

**2. FOOD**

- How we get our food
- Special occasions
- Tongue and Teeth
- Teeth, beaks and claws

**3. SHELTER**

- Houses then and now
- Garbage?
- Where animals live
- When birds make nests
- Mapping our neighbourhood

**4. WATER**

- Water fit for drinking
- Water sources
- Our river/sea
- Water vanishes when heated?

**5. TRAVEL**

- Animals for transport
- Paying for travel
- Travel to another place

**6. Things We Make And Do**

- Building materials and tools

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Environmental Studies Class 3 NCERT Syllabus

**ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES – Class III**

**1. Family and Friends**

**1.1 RELATIONSHIPS**

- My family
- My family and me
- Whom do I look like?
- Old and the physically challenged

**1.2 PLANTS**

- Plants around us
- Leaves in our lives

**1.3 ANIMALS**

- Animals: small and big
- Some creepy crawlies – and flyers too
- Birds

**1.4 WORK AND PLAY**

- Work around me
- Working children
- Games we play

**2. Food**

2.1 Foods from plants and animals

2.2 Cooking

2.3 Eating in the family

2.4 What animals eat

**3. Shelter**

3.1 Houses and houses

3.2 Decorating and cleaning our shelter

3.3 My family and other animals

3.4 Mapping my neighbourhood

**4. Water**

4.1 Water for my family

4.2 Do animals and plants need water?

4.3 Water shortage

4.4 Water in our lives

4.5 Storing water

**5. Travel**

5.1 Going places

5.2 Ways to travel

5.3 Talking without speaking

5.4 Mailing a letter

**6. Things we Make and Do**

6.1 Pottery

6.2 Textiles

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Social Science Class 8 NCERT Syllabus

#### HISTORY: OUR PASTS

#### CLASS** VIII: OUR PASTS – III**

**Where, When, How **

(a) An overview of the period.

(b) Introduction to the new geographical categories.

(c) An outline of the time frame.

(d) An introduction to the sources.

**The Establishment of Company Power **

(a) Mercantilism and trade-wars.

(b) Struggle for territory, wars with Indian rulers.

(c) The growth of colonial army and civilian administration. Regional focus: Tamil Nadu.

**Rural Life and Society **

(a) Colonial agrarian policies; their effect on peasants and landlords.

(b) Growth of commercial crops.

(c) Peasant revolts: focus on indigo rebellions. Regional focus: Bengal and Bihar. Some comparison with later developments in Punjab.

**Colonialism and Tribal Societies**

(a) Changes within tribal economies and societies in the nineteenth century.

(b) Tribal revolts: focus on Birsa Munda. Regional focus: Chotanagpur and North-East.

**Crafts and Industries **

(a) Decline of handicrafts in the nineteenth century.

(b)Brief reference to growth of industries in the twentieth century.

Case-studies: textiles.

**The Revolt of 1857-58 **

(a) The rebellion in the army and the spread of the movement.

(b) The nature of elite and peasant participation. Regional focus: Awadh.

**Education and British rule **

(a) The new education system – schools, syllabi, colleges, universities, technical training.

(b) Changes in the indigenous systems.

(c) Growth of ‘National education’. Case-studies: Baroda, Aligarh.

**Women and reform**

(a) Debates around sati, widow remarriage, child marriage and age of consent.

(b) Ideas of different reformers on the position of women and women’s education.

Regional focus: Maharashtra and Bengal.

**Challenging the Caste System **

(a) Arguments for caste reform. The ideas of Phule, Veerasalingam, Sri Narayana Guru, Periyar, Gandhi, Ambedkar.

(b) Consequences and implications of the activities of the reformers.

Region: Maharashtra, Andhra.

**Colonialism and Urban Change **

(a) De-urbanisation and emergence of new towns.

(b) Implications of colonial policies and institutions – municipalities, public works, planning, railway links, police. Case-study: Delhi.

**Changes in the Arts: Painting, Literature, architecture **

(a) Impact of new technologies and institutions: art schools, printing press.

(b) Western academic style and nationalist art.

(c) Changes in performing arts – music and dance enter the public arena.

(d) New forms of writing.

(e) New architecture.

Case-studies: Mumbai, Chennai.

**The Nationalist Movement **

(a) Overview of the nationalist movement from the 1870s to the 1940s.

(b) Diverse trends within the movement and different social groups involved.

(c) Links with constitutional changes.

Case study: Khilafat to Non Cooperation.

**India after Independence **

(a) National and regional developments since 1947.

(b) Relations with other countries.

(c) Looking to the future.

#### GEOGRAPHY

**CLASS VIII : RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT**

Resources: resources and their types – natural and human.

Natural resources: their distribution, utilisation and conservation, land and soil, water, natural vegetation, wildlife, mineral and power resources (world patterns with special reference to India).

Agriculture: types of farming, major crops, food crops, fibres, beverages, agricultural development – two case studies – one from India and the other from a developed country/a farm in the US/ Netherlands/ Australia.

Industries: classification of industries based on size, raw material, ownership; major industries and distribution; infrastructure and development. Iron and Steel (a comparative study of Jamshedpur and a centre in USA e.g., Detroit).

Textile Industry (Ahmedabad and Osaka).

Information Technology (Bangalore and Silicon Valley).

Human Resources – composition, population change, distribution and density.

**DIVERSITY AND INTERDEPENDENCE**

**UNIT 1: The Constitution **

This unit focuses on the Constitution through first highlighting why there is a need for laws and then showing how the Constitution is the framework that determines the making of laws in this country. Aspects of secularism as well as economic justice are highlighted with respect to the Constitution.

**Section 1**

- The Role of the Constitution and the Need for Laws
- On need for laws discussed through an example like dowry,
- Role of Constitution in determining the authority/ legitimacy of the law,
- Laws and Dissent: Salt Satyagraha and a post-1947 example such as anti-liquor agitation.

**Section 2**

- Vision set forth in the Indian Constitution with a focus on secularism.
- On how an ideal of the Constitution translates into a law
- On how ideals of secularism got translated into fundamental rights.
- On Fundamental rights as human rights.
- On Fundamental Duties.
- On whether the fact that a law exists to secure certain rights mean that in effect these rights have been realised for all. This will be discussed wit examples from current efforts of various marginalised communities to realise their rights.

**UNIT 2: Parliamentary Government **

In this unit the functioning of parliamentary government and the roles and responsibilities of the various individuals involved in explained in context. In addition the workings of the central government are explained through the steps involved in passing a new law that arose out of people’s struggles

**Section 1**

- Reasons why parliamentary form chosen in India.
- Main features of composition of parliament and its role in debating a bill.
- Accountability of the government to the parliament.
- Role of President, PM and the Council of Ministers. Case Study: Debate between Nehru and Rajendra Prasad on the real powers of the President.

**Section 2 **

Understand central government through issue of minimum wages or other struggles keeping following in mind:

– Translation of felt need into law and the critical features of the legislation.

– Implication of law.

**UNIT 3: The Judiciary **

This unit focuses on understanding the judiciary through tracing a case from the lower to the higher courts. It also examines the difference between civil and criminal cases and the difference between the police and the courts as well as provides information on an FIR.

**Section 1 **

- The structure and process followed by the judiciary: Trace a case from lower to higher courts.
- Distinguish between civil and criminal cases.
- Indicate the rationale of the process

**Section 2 **

Difference between the roles of the police and that of the courts.

- Role of the Public Prosecutor.
- On an FIR: filing one, on the illegality of the police not accepting an FIR and the Supreme Court’s directive on this.

**UNIT 4: Social Justice and the Marginalised**

This unit focuses on issues of social justice and the marginalised. It first provides an understanding of what is meant by ‘marginalised’ groups. It then discusses indepth the issue of untouchability and reservations.

**Section 1**

A brief explanation of what is meant by marginalised. Include how various communities (SC, ST, OBC, minorities) fit in.

- Forms of social inequality – Constitutional provisions relating to social justice.
- Effect of social inequalities on economic inequalities.
- On Reservations.

**Section 2 **

Different forms of untouchability that continue to exist

- The law on manual scavenging with reference to existing realities in rural and urban areas.

**UNIT 5: Economic Presence of the Government**

Introduction of various ways by which government is engaged in developmental activities, especially in infrastructure and social sectors.

Explain with an example from this area why we need the government, how is the provision done, how does it impact upon people.

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Maths Class 5 NCERT Syllabus

### Syllabus of Maths class 5

**1. GEOMETRY **

**Shapes & Spatial Understanding**

• Gets the feel of perspective while drawing a 3-D object in 2-D.

• Gets the feel of an angle through observation and paper folding.

• Identifies right angles in the environment.

• Classifies angles into right, acute and obtuse angles.

• Represents right angle, acute angle and obtuse angle by drawing and tracing.

• Explores intuitively rotations and reflections of familiar 2-D shapes.

• Explores intuitively symmetry in familiar 3-D shapes.

• Makes the shapes of cubes, cylinders and cones using nets especially designed for this purpose.

**2. NUMBERS Numbers and Operations**

• Finds place value in numbers beyond 1000.

• Appreciates the role of place value in addition, subtraction and multiplication algorithms.

• Uses informal and standard division algorithms.

• Explains the meaning of factors and multiples.

**3. MENTAL ARITHMETIC**

• Estimates sums, differences, products and quotients and verifies using approximation.

**4. FRACTIONAL NUMBERS**

• Finds the fractional part of a collection.

• Compares fractions.

• Identifies equivalent fractions.

• Estimates the degree of closeness of a fraction to known fractions

( etc.)

• Uses decimal fractions in the context of units of length and money.

• Expresses a given fraction in decimal notation and vice versa.

**5. MONEY**

• Applies the four operations in solving problems involving money.

**6. MEASUREMENT**

**Length**

• Determines area and perimeter of simple geometrical figures.

• Applies the four operations in solving problems involving length, weight and volume.

• Relates commonly used larger and smaller units of length, weight and volume and converts one to the other.

• Applies simple fractions to quantities.

• Converts fractional larger unit into complete smaller units.

• Appreciates volume of a solid body: intuitively and also by informal measurement.

• Uses addition and subtraction in finding time intervals in simple cases.

**8. DATA HANDLING**

• Collects two-dimensional quantitative data. represents the data in the form of a table.

• Draws a bar graph or a pictograph to present a data.

**9. PATTERNS **

• Identifies patterns in square numbers, triangular numbers.

• Relates sequences of odd numbers between consecutive square numbers.

• Makes border strip and tiling patterns.

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Maths Class 4 NCERT Syllabus

**Syllabus of Maths class 4**

**1. GEOMETRY **

**Shapes & Spatial Understanding**

• Draws a circle free hand and with compass.

• Identifies centre, radius and diameter of a circle.

• Uses Tangrams to create different shapes.

• Tiles geometrical shapes: using one or two shapes.

• Chooses a tile among a given number of tiles that can tile a given region both intuitively and experimentally.

• Explores intuitively the area and perimeter of simple shapes.

• Makes 4-faced, 5-faced and 6- faced cubes from given nets especially designed for the same.

• Explores intuitively the reflections through inkblots, paper cutting and paper folding.

• Reads and draws 3-D objects, making use of the familiarity with the conventions used in this.

• Draws intuitively the plan, elevation and side view of simple objects.

**2. NUMBERS Numbers and Operations**

• Writes multiplication facts.

• Writes tables upto 10 × 10.

• Multiplies two and three digit numbers using lattice algorithm and the standard (column) algorithm.

• Divides a given number by another number in various ways such as:

– by drawing dots.

– by grouping.

– by using multiplication facts.

– by repeated subtraction.

• Applies the four operations to life situations.

• Frames word problems.

• Estimates sums, differences and products of given numbers.

**3. MENTAL ARITHMETIC**

• Adds and subtracts multiples of 10 and 100, mentally.

• Completes multiplication facts by adding partial products, mentally (e.g. 7 × 6 = 5 × 6 + 2 × 6).

**4. FRACTIONAL NUMBERS**

• Identifies half, one fourth and three- fourths of a whole.

• Identifies the symbols, 1/2, 1/4, 3/4

• Explains the meaning of 1/2. 1/4, 3/4

• Appreciates equivalence of 2/4 and 1/2; and of 2/2, 3/3, 4/4 and 1.

**5. MONEY**

• Converts Rupees to Paise.

• Adds and subtracts amounts using column addition and subtraction with regrouping.

• Uses operations to find totals, change, multiple costs and unit cost.

• Estimates roughly the totals and total cost.

**6. MEASUREMENT**

**Length**

• Relates metre with centimetre;

• Converts metre into centimetres and vice versa.

• Solves problems involving length and distances.

• Estimates length of an object and distance between two given locations.

**Weight**

• Weighs objects using a balance and standard units.

• Determines sums and differences of weights.

• Estimates the weight of an object and verifies using a balance.

**Volume**

• Measures volumes of given liquid using containers marked with standard units.

• Determines sums and differences of volumes.

• Estimates the volume of a liquid contained in a vessel and verifies by measuring.

**7. TIME**

• Computes the number of weeks in a year.

• Correlates the number of days in a year with the number of days in each month.

• Justifies the reason for the need of a leap year.

• Reads clock time to the nearest hours and minutes.

• Expresses time, using the terms, ‘a.m.’ and ‘p.m.’

• Estimates the duration of familiar events.

• Finds approximate time elapsed by (to the nearest hour) forward counting.

• Computes the number of days between two dates.

**8. DATA HANDLING**

• Collects data and represents in the form of bar graphs;

• Draws Inferences by discussing with the teacher.

**9. PATTERNS **

• Identifies patterns in multiplication and division: multiples of 9,

• Casts out nines from a given number to check if it is a multiple of nine.

• Multiplies and divides by 10s, 100s.

• Identifies geometrical patterns based on symmetry.

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Maths Class 3 NCERT Syllabus

**Syllabus of Maths class 3**

**1. GEOMETRY **

**Shapes & Spatial Understanding**

• Creates shapes through paper folding, paper cutting.

• Identifies 2-D shapes

• Describes the various 2-D shapes by counting their sides, corners and diagonals.

• Makes shapes on the dot-grid using straight lines and curves.

• Creates shapes using tangram pieces.

• Matches the properties of two 2-D shapes by observing their sides and corners (vertices).

• Tiles a given region using a tile of a given shape.

• Distinguishes between shapes that tile and that do not tile.

• Intuitive idea of a map. Reads simple maps (not necessarily scaled)

• Draws some 3D-objects.

**2. NUMBERS Number Sequence Upto 1000**

• Reads and writes 3-digit numbers.

• Expands a number w.r.t. place values.

• Counts in different ways – starting from any number.

• Compares numbers.

• Forms greatest and smallest numbers using given digits.

**3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION**

• Adds and subtracts numbers by writing them vertically in the following two cases:

– without regrouping.

– with regrouping.

• Uses the place value in standard algorithm of addition and subtraction.

• Solves addition and subtraction problems in different situations presented through pictures and stories.

• Frames problems for addition and subtraction facts.

• Estimates the sum of, and difference between, two given numbers.

**4. MULTIPLICATION**

• Explains the meaning of multiplication (as repeated addition).

• Identifies the sign of multiplication.

• Constructs the multiplication tables of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10

• Uses multiplication facts in situations.

• Multiplies two digit numbers using standard algorithm and Lattice multiplication algorithm.

**5. DIVISION**

• Explains the meaning of division from context of equal grouping and sharing.

• Relates division with multiplication.

• Completes division facts:

– by grouping

– by using multiplication tables.

**6. MENTAL ARITHMETIC**

• Adds and subtracts single digit numbers and two digit numbers mentally.

• Doubles two digit numbers mentally (result not exceeding two digits).

**7. MONEY**

• Converts Rupee. to Paise using play money.

• Adds and subtracts amounts using column addition, and subtraction without regrouping.

• Makes rate charts and bills.

**8. MEASUREMENT**

**Length**

• Appreciates the need for a standard unit.

• Measures length using appropriate standard units of length by choosing between centimetres. and metres.

• Estimates the length of given object in standard units and verifies by measuring.

• Uses a ruler

• Relates centimetre. and metre.

**Weight**

• Weighs objects using non standard Units.

• Appreciates the conservation of weight.

**Volume**

• Measures and compares the capacity of different containers in terms of non-standard units.

• Appreciates the conservation of volume.

**TIME**

• Reads a calendar to find a particular day and date.

• Reads the time correct to the hour.

• Sequences the events chronologically.

**9. DATA HANDLING**

• Records data using tally marks.

• Collects data and represents in terms of pictograph choosing appropriate scale and unit for display through pictographs.

• Draws conclusions from the data by discussing with the teacher.

**10. PATTERNS **

• Identifies simple symmetrical shapes and patterns.

• Makes patterns and designs from straight lines and other geometrical shapes.

• Identifies patterns in the numerals for odd and even numbers and in adding odd and even numbers.

• Partitions a number in different ways.

• Identifies patterns in his surroundings

• Identifies patterns in multiplication with, and dividing by 10s.

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Maths Class 2 NCERT Syllabus

**Syllabus of Maths class 2**

**1. NUMBERS**

• Reads and writes numerals for numbers up to ninetynine.

• Expands a number with respect to place values.

• Counts and regroups objects into tens and ones.

• Uses the concept of place value in the comparison of numbers.

• Counts in various ways:

– Starting from any number.

– Group counting etc.

• Arranges numbers upto hundred in ascending and descending order.

• Forms the greatest and the smallest two digit numbers with and without repetition of given digits.

• Indicates and identifies the position of an object in a line.

**2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION**

• Adds and subtracts two digit numbers by drawing representations of tens and ones without and with regrouping.

• Adds zero to a number and subtracts zero from a number.

• Observes the commutative property of addition through patterns.

• Solves addition, subtraction problems presented through pictures and verbal description.

• Describes orally the situations that correspond to the given addition and subtraction facts.

• Estimates the result of addition and subtraction and compares the result with another given number.

**3. PREPARATION FOR MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION**

• Discussion of situations involving repeated addition and situations involving equal sharing.

• Activities of making equal groups.

**4. MENTAL ARITHMETIC**

• Adds and subtracts single digit numbers mentally.

• Adds and subtracts multiples of ten mentally.

**5. ** **MEASUREMENT**

**Length**

• Measures lengths & distances along short & long paths

using uniform (non-standard) units, extends to longer

lengths.

**Weight**

• Compares two or more objects by their weight.

• Appreciates the need for a simple balance.

• Compares weights of given objects using simple balance.

**Capacity (Volume**)

• Compares and orders containers in terms of internal volume(capacity).

• Orders given containers as per their capacities on the basis of perception & verifies by pouring out etc.

**6. MONEY**

• Identifies currency – notes and coins.

• Puts together amounts of money not exceeding Rs 50/-.

• Adds and subtracts small amounts of money mentally.

• Transacts an amount using 3-4 notes.

**7. TIME**

• Gets familiar with the days of the week and months of the year.

• Gets a feel for sequence of seasons (varying locally).

• Sequences the events occurring over longer periods in terms of dates/days.

**8. GEOMETRY **

**Shapes & Spatial Understanding 3-D and 2-D Shapes**

• Observes objects in the environment and gets a qualitative feel for their geometrical attributes.

• Identifies the basic 3-D shapes such as cuboid, cylinder, cone, sphere by their names.

• Traces the 2-D outlines of 3-D objects.

• Observes and identifies these 2-D shapes.

• Identifies 2-D shapes viz., rectangle, square, triangle, circle by their names.

• Describes intuitively the properties of these 2-D shapes.

• Identifies and makes straight lines by folding, straight edged objects, stretched strings and draws free hand and with a ruler.

• Draws horizontal, vertical and slant lines (free hand).

• Distinguishes between straight and curved lines.

• Identifies objects by observing their shadows.

**9. PATTERNS**

• Observes and extends patterns in sequence of shapes and numbers.

• Searches for patterns in different ways of splitting a number.

• Creates block patterns by stamping thumbprints, leaf prints, vegetable prints, etc.

• Creates patterns of regular shapes by stamping.

**10. DATA HANDLING **

• Collects data through measurement.

• Represents the data followed by discussion (e.g. heights of children).

• Collects and presents the data on birthdays.

• Draws inferences from the data at the appropriate level.

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Maths Class 1 NCERT Syllabus

**Syllabus of Maths class 1**

**1. NUMBERS **

**Developing a Sense of Numberness, Counting and Operations of Numbers 1 – 9 and Zero**

• Observes object and makes collections of objects.

• Arranges the collection of objects in order by

– Matching and

– One to one correspondence

• Counts the number of objects in a collection.

• Makes collection of objects corresponding to a specific number.

• Recognises and speaks numbers from 1 to 9.

• Uses numbers from 1 to 9 in counting and comparison. (Real objects and repeated events like clapping to be used for counting)

• Reads and writes numerals from 1 to 9.

• Adds and subtracts using real objects and pictures.

• Adds and subtracts the numbers using symbols ‘+’ and ‘-’.

• Approaches zero through the subtraction pattern (such as 3 – 1 = 2, 3 – 2 = 1, 3 – 3 = 0).

**2. NUMBERS FROM (10 – 20)**

• Forms Number sequence from 10 to 20.

• Counts objects using these numbers.

• Groups objects into a group of 10s and single objects.

• Develops the vocabulary of group of ‘tens’ and ‘ones’.

• Shows the group of tens and ones by drawing.

• Counts the number of tens and ones in a given number.

• Writes the numerals for eleven to nineteen.

• Writes numerals for ten and twenty.

• Compares numbers upto 20.

**3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION (UPTO 20)**

• Adds and subtracts numbers upto 20.

**4. NUMBERS FROM 21 – 99**

• Writes numerals for Twenty-one to Ninety-nine. Groups objects into tens and ones.

• Draws representation for groups of ten and ones.

• Groups a number orally into tens and ones.

**5. MENTAL ARITHMETIC**

• Adds two single digit numbers mentally.

**6. ****PATTERNS **

• Describes sequences of simple patterns found in shapes in the surroundings and in numbers, e.g. stamping activity using fingers and thumb.

• Completes a given sequence of simple patterns found in shapes in the surroundings and in numbers.

**7. GEOMETRY **

**Shapes & Spatial Understanding**

• Develops and uses vocabulary of spatial relationship (Top, Bottom, On, Under, Inside, Outside, Above, Below, Near, Far, Before, After)

**SOLIDS AROUND US**

• Collects objects from the surroundings having different sizes and shapes like pebbles, boxes, balls, cones, pipes, etc.

• Sorts, Classifies and describes the objects on the basis of shapes, and other observable properties.

• Observes and describes the way shapes affect

• Sorts 2 – D shapes such as flat objects made of card etc.

**8. MEASUREMENT**

**Length**

• Distinguishes between near, far, thin, thick, longer/taller, shorter, high, low.

• Seriates objects by comparing their length.

• Measures short lengths in terms of non-uniform units (in the context of games e.g. ‘Gilli Danda’ and ‘marblegames’).

• Estimates distance and length, and verifies using nonuniform units (e.g. hand span etc.)

**Weight**

• Compares between heavy and light objects.

**9. TIME**

• Distinguishes between events occurring in time using terms -earlier and later.

• Gets the qualitative feel of long & short duration, of school days v/s holidays.

• Narrates the sequence of events in a day.

**10. MONEY**

• Identifies common currency notes and coins.

• Puts together small amounts of money.

**11. DATA HANDLING**

• Collects, represents and interprets simple data such as measuring the arm length or circumference of the head using a paper strip.

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Maths Class 8 NCERT Syllabus

#### Number System

**(i) Rational Numbers:**

- Properties of rational numbers. (including identities). Using general form of expression to describe properties
- Consolidation of operations on rational numbers.
- Representation of rational numbers on the number line
- Between any two rational numbers there lies another rational number (Making children see that if we take two rational numbers then unlike for whole numbers, in this case you can keep finding more and more numbers that lie between them.)
- Word problem (higher logic, two operations, including ideas like area)

**(ii) Powers**

- Integers as exponents.
- Laws of exponents with integral powers

**(iii)Squares, Square roots, Cubes, Cube roots.**

- Square and Square roots
- Square roots using factor method and division method for numbers containing (a) no more than total 4 digits and (b) no more than 2 decimal places
- Cubes and cubes roots (only factor method for numbers containing at most 3 digits)
- Estimating square roots and cube roots. Learning the process of moving nearer to the required number.

**(iv) Playing with numbers**

- Writing and understanding a 2 and 3 digit number in generalized form (100a + 10b + c , where a, b, c can be only digit 0-9) and engaging with various puzzles concerning this. (Like finding the missing numerals represented by alphabets in sums involving any of the four operations.) Children to solve and create problems and puzzles.
- Number puzzles and games
- Deducing the divisibility test rules of 2, 3, 5, 9, 10 for a two or three-digit number expressed in the general form.

#### Algebra

**(i) Algebraic Expressions**

- Multiplication and division of algebraic exp.(Coefficient should be integers)
- Some common errors (e.g. 2 + x ≠ 2x, 7x + y ≠ 7xy )
- Identities (a±b)² = a² ± 2ab + b²

a²-b² = (a – b) (a + b)

Factorisation (simple cases only) as examples the following types a(x + y), (x±y)², a²-b², (x + a).(x + b) - Solving linear equations in one variable in contextual problems involving multiplication and division (word problems) (avoid complex coefficient in the equations)

#### Ratio and Proportion

- Slightly advanced problems involving applications on percentages, profit & loss, overhead expenses, Discount, tax.
- Difference between simple and compound interest (compounded yearly up to 3 years or half-yearly up to 3 steps only), Arriving at the formula for compound interest through patterns and using it for simple problems.
- Direct variation – Simple and direct word problems
- Inverse variation – Simple and direct word problems
- Time & work problems– Simple and direct word problems

#### Geometry

**(i) Understanding shapes:**

- Properties of quadrilaterals – Sum of angles of a quadrilateral is equal to 3600 (By verification)
- Properties of parallelogram (By verification)

(i)Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal,

(ii) Opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal,

(iii) Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. [Why (iv), (v) and (vi) follow from (ii)]

(iv) Diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other.

(v) Diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.

(vi) Diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles.

**(ii) Representing 3-D in 2-D**

- Identify and Match pictures with objects [more complicated e.g. nested, joint 2-D and 3-D shapes (not more than 2)].
- Drawing 2-D representation of 3-D objects (Continued and extended)
- Counting vertices, edges & faces & verifying Euler’s relation for 3-D figures with flat faces (cubes, cuboids, tetrahedrons, prisms and pyramids)

**(iii) Construction:**

Construction of Quadrilaterals:

- Given four sides and one diagonal
- Three sides and two diagonals
- Three sides and two included angles
- Two adjacent sides and three angles

#### Mensuration

(i)Area of a trapezium and a polygon.

(ii) Concept of volume, measurement of volume using a basic unit, volume of a cube, cuboid and cylinder

(iii) Volume and capacity (measurement of capacity)

(iv) Surface area of a cube, cuboid, cylinder.

#### Data handling

(i) Reading bar-graphs, ungrouped data, arranging it into groups, representation of grouped data through bar-graphs, constructing and interpreting bar-graphs.

(ii)Simple Pie charts with reasonable data numbers

(iii) Consolidating and generalising the notion of chance in events like tossing coins, dice etc. Relating it to chance in life events. Visual representation of frequency outcomes of repeated throws of the same kind of coins or dice.

Throwing a large number of identical dice/coins together and aggregating the result of the throws to get large number of individual events. Observing the aggregating numbers over a large number of repeated events. Comparing with the data for a coin. Observing strings of throws, notion of randomness

**Introduction to graphs**

PRELIMINARIES:

(i) Axes (Same units), Cartesian Plane

(ii) Plotting points for different kind of situations (perimeter vs length for squares, area as a function of side of a square, plotting of multiples of different numbers, simple interest vs number of years etc.)

(iii) Reading off from the graphs

- Reading of linear graphs
- Reading of distance vs time graph

## CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Social Science Class 10 NCERT Syllabus

### Syllabus of Social Science class X HISTORY

Unit I: Events and Processes

Unit II: Economies and Livelihoods

Unit III: Culture, Identity and Society

**Unit I: Events and Processes**

**1. Nationalism in Europe**

(a) The growth of nationalism in Europe after the 1830s.

(b) The ideas of Giuseppe Mazzini etc.

(c) General characteristics of the movements in Poland, Hungary, Italy and Germany, Greece.

**2. Nationalist Movement in Indo-China**

(a) French colonialism in Indo-China.

(b) Phases of struggle against the French.

(c) The ideas of Phan Dinh Phung, Phan Boi Chau, Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh).

(d) The second world war and the liberation struggle.

(e) America and the second Indo-China war.

**3. Nationalism in India: Civil Disobedience Movement**

(a) First world war, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation.

(b) Salt Satyagraha.

(c) Movements of peasants, workers, tribals.

(d) Activities of different political groups.

**Unit II: Economies and Livelihoods**

**4. Industrialisation 1850s–1950s**

(a) Contrast between the form of industrialization in Britain and India.

(b) Relationship between handicrafts and industrial production, formal and informal sectors.

(c) Livelihood of workers.

**Case studies:** Britain and India

**5. Urbanisation and Urban Lives**

(a) Patterns of urbanisation

(b) Migration and the growth of towns.

(c) Social change and urban life.

(d) Merchants, middle classes, workers and urban poor.

**Case studies:** London and Bombay in the nineteenth and twentieth century.

**6. Trade and Globalization**

(a) Expansion and integration of the world market in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.

(b) Trade and economy between the two Wars.

(c) Shifts after the 1950s.

(d) Implications of globalization for livelihood patterns.

**Case studies:** The post War International Economic order, 1945 to the 1960s.

**Unit III: Culture, Identity **and** Society**

**6. Print Culture and Nationalism**

(a) The history of print in Europe.

(b) The growth of press in nineteenth century India.

(c) Relationship between print culture, public debate and politics.

**7. History of the Novel**

(a) Emergence of the novel as a genre in the west.

(b) The relationship between the novel and changes in modern society.

(c) Early novels in nineteenth century India.

(d) A study of two or three major writers.

**Syllabus of Social Science class X ****GEOGRAPHY**

**1. Resources: Types —** natural and human; Need for resource planning.

**Natural Resources:** Land as a resource, soil formation, types and distribution; changing land-use pattern; land degradation and conservation measures.

**Forest and wildlife resources:** Types and distribution, depletion of flora and fauna; conservation and protection of forests and wildlife.

**2. Agriculture:**

Types of farming, major crops, cropping pattern, technological and institutional reforms; their impact; contribution of Agriculture to national economy — employment and output, food security, impact of globalisation.

**3. Water resources:**

Sources, distribution, utilisation, multipurpose projects, water scarcity, need for conservation and management, rainwater harvesting. (One case study to be introduced)

**4. Mineral Resources:**

Types of minerals, distribution, use and economic importance of minerals, conservation.

**5. Power Resources:**

Types of power resources – conventional and non-conventional, distribution and utilization, and conservation.

**6. Manufacturing Industries:**

Types, spatial distribution, contribution to industries to the national economy, industrial pollution and degradation of environment, measures to control degradation. (One case study to be introduced)

**7. Transport, communication and trade**

**Syllabus of Social Science class X POLITICAL SCIENCE (****Civics)**

**1. Working of democracy**

Are divisions inherent to the working of democracy? What has been the effect of caste on politics and of politics on caste? How has the gender division shaped politics? How do communal divisions affect democracy?

**2. Power sharing mechanisms in democracy**

Why and how is power shared in democracies? How has federal division of power in India helped national unity? To what extent has decentralisation achieved this objective? How does democracy accommodate different social groups?

**3. Competition and contestations in democracy**

How do struggles shape democracy in favour of ordinary people? What role do political parties play in competition and contestation? Which are the major national and regional parties in India? Why have social movements come to occupy larger role in politics?

**4. Outcomes of democracy**

Can or should democracy be judged by its outcomes? What outcomes can one reasonably expect of democracies? Does democracy in India meet these expectations? Has democracy led to development, security and dignity for the people? What sustains democracy in India?

**5. Challenges to democracy**

Is the idea of democracy shrinking? What are the major challenges to democracy in India? How can democracy be reformed and deepened? What role can an ordinary citizen play in deepening democracy?