NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution (Social Science), contains solutions to various questions in Exercise for Chapter 2.  At the end of the Solutions, all the keywords which are important to understand Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 History, have been explained in a simple and easy to understand manner. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Exercises includes Question/Answers which helps you to understand the topic covered in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 History (Social Science), in a better manner to help you to score good marks in your examinations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution – NCERT Exercises

Ques.1: What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Ans.1: Before the year 1905, the situations in Russia were apprehensive. There were widespread protests and people were mostly dissatisfied with the existing conditions these social, economic, and political conditions of Russia before 1905 were as follows:

A. Social Conditions: The social conditions in Russia before 1905 were largely diverse. The population was divided into workers and peasants in the lower class, and existence of nobility and clergy were common.

  • Among the workers, there existed an unstated supremacy of the metalworkers, owing to the expertise and skills required in their work.
  • Some workers were connected to their hometowns while others permanently settled in the cities.
  • Women formed an important part of the worker’s group, contributing 31% of the total labour force.
  • Some workers actively formed unions and participated in them to help fellow workers. However, all the workers overcame these differences and came together to strike against adverse working conditions.
  • Peasants formed an important part of society. They were more involved in the cultivation of the land and did not possess much of it. However, they respected the nobles of the country.

B. Economic Conditions: The Russian economy was largely dependent on agriculture, with 85% of its population being engaged in agricultural practices.

  • Russia was a major exporter of food grains before 1905.
  • Industries were not popular and were only found in small concentrations. Major industrial regions were St. Petersburg and Moscow. Almost all the industrial units were private properties, with minimum government supervision over large ones.
  • Industrial growth was aided with the extension of rail networks and increased foreign investment in industries.
  • Coal, iron and steel production increased drastically.

C. Political Conditions: Prior to 1905, Russia was an autocracy.

  • No political parties were allowed until 1914. However, two parties, namely the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party and Socialist Revolutionary Party were existing. Nevertheless, the government declared them as illegal organisations.
  • There existed a difference of ideology among the two parties.
  • The Socialist Democrats mostly believed that the peasants cannot get united as they were a diverse social group. Whereas, the Bolshevik section, led by Lenin believed in controlling the entry of people into the part while on the other hand, Menshevik faction favoured a system that was open to all.




Ques.2: In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?

Ans.2: The working population in Russia differed in a number of ways as compared to the other European countries in the following ways:

  • In Russia, nearly 85% of the population was engaged in agriculture and allied activities, which was higher than any other European country.
  • Production was undertaken for both, subsistence as well as market purposes.
  • The peasants pooled their lands and separated them depending upon their needs.
  • Workers formed a major part of the working populationand it was further divided on the basis of skills as well as manners. Women too formed a significant part of the population.

Ques.3: Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

Ans.3: Even though Tsar cleared it’s the way to the Parliament, the steps taken after some time agitated people for a variety of reasons. The reasons that contributed to the fall of the aristocracy in 1917 were:

  • All the factory committees and trade unions were declared illegal, and major restrictions were imposed on political activities.
  • Duma was terminated by Tsar within 75 days of its formation.
  • Though the new Parliament was re-elected soon, not many powers were vested in it. Eventually, owing to the status the Parliament was dismissed and a new Duma was elected, consisting of only conservatives.
  • Even though the war was initially popular, the disregard of the Duma by the king was unacceptable by the people and this created a negative attitude of the common masses towards the ruler. The aristocracy hence became unpopular.
  • The dramatic defeat of the Russian armies in the war and massive destruction caused to life and property was greatly criticized. The soldiers became reluctant to fight the war.
  • The war damaged the already stumpy levels of industrialization that was present in the country. Supplies were cut and machinery disintegrated. Soon the country ran into shortage of food grains.

The combined result of all these events led to the removal of the king, and hence the fall of aristocracy in 1917.

Ques.4: Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders, and what was the impact of each on Soviet history.

Ans.4:

Main events of the February Revolution were:

  • A factory lockout took place on 22nd February, following which workers from fifty factories went on strike the next day, on 23 February.
  • On 25th February, the Duma was suspended by the government.
  • On 27th February, the demonstrators plundered the police stations, demanding their rights to better working conditions, democracy, and bread to be fulfilled.
  • A soviet named Petrograd Soviet was formed by the protesting workers and soldiers.
  • Tsar was forced to leave the throne on 2nd March 1917, thereby collapsing the monarchy and the Provisional Government formed by Soviet and Duma leaders took over the country.

Effects of the February Revolution were:

  • Soviets began to be set up around the country, and associations and public meetings were legalised.
  • Lenin demanded to transfer land to the peasants, nationalisation and putting an end to the war.
  • Factory committees questioning the system of running the factories were formed. Soldiers’ committees were being set up in the army.
  • Eventually, the Bolshevik influence continued to grow. Land began to be redistributed by the committees, and between July and September, peasants began seizing the land.

Main events of the October Revolution were:

  • The Bolsheviks began igniting a spark among the followers against the government.
  • A Military Revolutionary Committee was set up under the leadership of Leon Trotskii on 16 October 1917 to seize the power of the government.
  • The violent uprisings began on 24 October. Eventually, the entire city and all the military points were taken over by the committee.
  • Riots and fights continued all over the country. Gradually, the Moscow-Petrograd area was completely under the control of the Bolsheviks.




Effects of the October Revolution were:

  • In November 1917, the banks and industries were nationalised.
  • The land of the nobility was seized by the peasants and land was no longer private property.
  • Large houses were redistributed depending on the family sizes.
  • New uniforms were introduced for soldiers and officials, the most famous among them being the budeonovka, the Soviet hat.
  • The Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) was the new name adopted by the Bolshevik Party.
  • Eventually, Russia became a one-party state, with only the Bolshevik Party being the one to participate. The secret police were set up and trade unions were once again under control.
  • The Bolshevik Party encouraged censorship as well, thereby keeping the populations in the dark.

The major involvement in these revolutions was that of the workers, peasants, and soldiers. They were the major force of these revolutions. They eventually formed the Provisional Government after the February Revolution. The major leaders of the February Revolution were the Soviet and Duma leaders. The October Revolution was majorly led by Lenin, the Bolshevik leader. These Revolutions together came to be known as the Russian Revolution.

Ques.5: What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Ans.5: The main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution were:

  • In November 1917, the banks and industries were nationalised.
  • The land of the nobility was seized by the peasants and land no longer remained as a private property.
  • Large houses were redistributed depending on the family sizes.
  • New uniforms were introduced for soldiers and officials, the most famous among them being the budeonovka, or the Soviet hat.
  • The Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) was the new name adopted by the Bolshevik Party.
  • The assembly which got elected in November 1917 was dismissed by Lenin and proper elections were conducted for the All Russian Congress of Soviets.
  • The problems between the Bolsheviks and Germany regarding Brest Litovsk were resolved against the popular opposition.
  • Eventually, Russia became a one-party state, with the Bolshevik Party being the only one to participate.
  • Soon the Party grew autocratic and began punishing those who criticised them. A secret police commission was set up and trade unions were once again under control.
  • The Bolshevik Party encouraged censorship as well, thereby keeping the populations in the dark.

Ques.6: Write a few lines to show what you know about:

a) Kulaks
b) the Duma
c) women workers between 1900 and 1930
d) the Liberals
e) Stalin’s collectivisation programme.

 Ans.6:

a) Kulaks: The kulaks were the well-to-do peasants of Russia. They possessed vast pieces of land and were held responsible for the food grain shortage as they controlled most of the land and the remaining small landholdings were unproductive. They were raided and their land confiscated by peasants as asked by the government so that these farms can be collectivized and modernized completely. Stalin aimed at completely eliminating the kulaks.

b) The Duma: The Duma was the parliament elected after the Revolution of 1905. The first Duma was dismissed by Tsar within 75 days of its formation. Though the new Parliament was re-elected soon, not many powers were vested in it. Eventually, again the Parliament was dismissed and a new Duma was elected, consisting of only conservatives.

c) Women workers between 1900 and 1930: By 1914, women constituted 31% of the total workforce of the factory. However, there remained a huge pay gap between men and women, with women being paid half or three-quarters of the men’s wages.

d) The Liberals: The Liberals aimed at changing society and were secular. They tolerated all the religions and very extremely against the concept of monarchy. They believed in the concept of fundamental rights and were largely in favour of representative governments elected by the citizens themselves. They demanded the setting up of an independent judiciary to safeguard individual rights.

e) Stalin’s collectivisation programme: This programme was introduced in the year 1929, whereby all the farms in the country were collectivized and converted into large farms, named kolkhoz. All the peasants were forced to work on these lands and the profit earned was shared among them all. However, the programme greatly failed to achieve its main purpose of overcoming the food shortage.




Topics Covered in Chapter 2 – Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 History (Social Science)

1. The Age of Social Change

1.1 Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives

1.2 Industrial Society and Social Change

1.3 The Coming of Socialism to Europe

1.4 Support for Socialism

2. The Russian Revolution

2.1 The Russian Empire in 1914

2.2 Economy and Society

2.3 Socialism in Russia

2.4 A Turbulent Time: The 1905 Revolution

2.5 The First World War and the Russian Empire

3. The February Revolution in Petrograd

3.1 After February

3.2 The Revolution of October 1917

4. What Changed after October?

4.1 The Civil War

4.2 Making a Socialist Society

4.3 Stalinism and Collectivisation

5. The Global Influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR

Important Terms Relevant for NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution :

Suffragette movement: A movement demanding the right to vote for women.

Socialism: A system of structuring the society where the government owns all the property.

Jadidists: A section of Muslim society demanding modernised Islam.

Real wage: The part of income indicating the quantity of the goods that can be bought with it.

Autonomy: The state of ruling one’s own country or self-governance..

Nomadism: A lifestyle where people are continuously keeps moving from one place to another to earn their living. These do not have settled lives.

Deported: Being removed from one’s own country by force.

Exiled: Living away from one’s own country under forceful conditions.

Kulaks: The wealthy, well-to-do peasants who owned large farms.

Kolkhoz: The collectivised farms.

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