NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Social Science), contains solutions to various questions in Exercise for Chapter 1.  At the end of the Solutions, all the keywords which are important to understand The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History, have been explained in a simple and easy to understand manner. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Exercises includes Question/Answers which helps you to understand the topic covered in The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History (Social Science), in a better manner to help you to score good marks in your examinations.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe – NCERT Exercises

Question.1: Write a note on:

a) Giuseppe Mazzini
b) Count Camillo de Cavour
c) The Greek war of independence
d) Frankfurt parliament
e) The role of women in nationalist struggles

Ans.1:

a) Giuseppe Mazzini: He was born in the year 1807 in Genoa and his identity is popular as an Italian revolutionary. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari who led a revolution in Liguria for which he was sent to exile. Later on, he found two secret societies, Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. He believed that nations were intended to be natural units of mankind, and thus, he wanted Italy to be a unified nation. He was labeled by Metternich, as conservative, and ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Count Camillo de Cavour led the movement for the unification of Italy. He helped Italy to enter into a diplomatic alliance with France, which helped them to defeat the Austrian forces in 1859.

c) The Greek war of independence: Initially, Greece was a part of the Ottoman empire. The revolutions that took place in Europe inspired the upheaval in Greece, and the uprising began in 1821. Greeks from around the world and revolutionaries from West Europe who sympathised with the Greek culture joined the revolution. Greece was recognised as an independent nation after the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople.

d) Frankfurt parliament: Frankfurt parliament was an all-German National Assembly consisting of middle-class professionals, prosperous artisans, and businessmen. It was elected on 18 May 1848 for the first time. A constitution was also drafted by them for Germany.

e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: The journey to get political rights for women have been full of struggles. They were denied voting rights. Women largely participated in scuffles and formed political associations. They founded newspapers and also organized demonstrations. Even when the Frankfurt parliament was elected, they were not given the right to vote, and they were allowed only as observers when the parliament was convened.







Ques.2: What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Ans.2: The French Revolution took place in the year 1789. The revolution aimed at destroying the control of monarch and to make the state a sovereign nation led by the French citizen. The French revolutionaries created practices and measures to unite the masses as one in order to instil a sense of collective identity among the masses.

  • A common constitution was established to govern the nation.
  • The ideas like la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) were propagated to emphasise unity and affiliation to a common fatherland.
  • Other important changes included the adoption of a new tricolour French flag, election of a new National Assembly, Commemoration of martyrs of the revolution in hymns, and establishment of an administrative system with uniform laws for all the citizens.
  • The economic system was changed to an even and fair system, a uniform organization of weights and measurement were adopted.
  • The regional dialects were discouraged and use of French language as the common language came into force.

As the French Revolution became successful, people in the rest of Europe started to get inspired by the ideas and the success of the Revolution.

Ques.3: Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Ans.3: In France, Marianne was known as the female allegory of the French nation. Her characteristics included the tricolour, the cap and the cockade. Similarly, Germania was the female allegory for the German nation. Her characteristics included breastplate with eagle, sword, and a crown made of oak leaves.

During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, to unite the citizens, artists used allegory to visualise the idea of a nation. Allegory can be termed as the expression of an abstract idea through a person or a thing. Hence, nations were represented as female figures. How these were represented was of major importance as it helped people visualise a nation and unite them.




Ques.4: Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Ans.4: The process of German unification is as follows:

  • In Germany, people from the middle class section of society began coming together and forming political associations. These associations decided to elect a parliament.
  • Therefore, on May 18, 1848, the Frankfurt Parliament was elected with 831 members.
  • The parliament was convened in St. Paul Church and there a constitution for Germany was drafted.
  • When offered the crown to make Germany a constitutional monarchy, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia rejected it and united with other kings to oppose the parliament.
  • As the parliament majorly constituted of the middle class, they began ignoring the demands of the peasants and artisans which made them lose the widespread support. Also, the monarchy continued to grow stronger and began becoming powerful with every passing day. Eventually, the parliament was dismissed and once again, monarchy took over.
  • After this, Prussia began leading the struggle for unification, mainly headed by Otto von Bismarck.
  • Finally, in 1871, after winning three wars against Austria, Denmark and France, Germany completed the process of unification. King Kaiser William I of Prussia was finally crowned as the king of unified Germany.

Ques.5: What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Ans.5: After Napoleon came to power in France, he destroyed democracy and restored the system of monarchy in the nation. However, under his reign, he brought certain administrative changes that made the system more efficient and rational.These changes were together called the “Civil Code” of the “Napoleonic Code”. The changes brought by the Civil Code of 1804 included the following:

  1. Firstly, the Code dismissed the privileges based on birth and ensured the right to property.
  2. Equality before the law was established.
  3. In the regions controlled by the French, administrative divisions were simplified.
  4. The feudal system was abolished and the peasants were no longer bonded. Also,he guild restrictions were removed.
  5. Communication and transport systems witnessed significant improvement.
  6. The uniform laws, common currency, standardised weights and measurement facilitated the easy movement of goods and capital across the region and helped businessmen and small-scale producers to flourish.

However, these administrative changes did not satisfy the people for long as Napoleon’s rule brought with it increased censorship, taxation, and forced entry into the French armies.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe – NCERT Exercises – Discuss

Ques.1: Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals.  What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Ans.1: The year 1848 witnessed revolutions from all around Europe.

  • In France, a republic was proclaimed based on universal male suffrage.
  • In other states of Europe, people belonging to liberal middle classes began raising demands for national unification and constitution. They began demanding freedom of the press, freedom of association, and a constitution.
  • During the same year, revolutions began in Germany demanding the German unification. Frankfurt parliament was elected by the German populations, which drafted a constitution for Germany.
  • Women in Europe also began demanding equal social and political rights.
  • The revolution by the liberals grew so strong that eventually, the monarchies began introducing changes, as a result of which bonded labour and slavery were also abolished.




Ques.2: Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Ans.2: The spirit of nationalism can never rise just like that due to territorial expansion and wars. Cultural affiliation plays a very crucial role in unifying the masses and inspiring them to work in the direction of nationalism. Even during the spread of nationalism in Europe cultural significance played an important role to mobilise the citizens. The different ways in which culture contributed to the growth of nationalism were:

a) Romanticism: The “Romanticism” movement played a significant role in the igniting the nationalist sentiment among the masses. The idea of Romanticism was based on intuition, emotions, and mystical feelings. It aimed at instilling a sense of shared culture and collective heritage as the basis of a nation.Various scholars and philosophers propagated the idea of Romanticism.

b) Language: The preservation of vernacular languages was also equally important. The propagation of ideas in the vernacular language could facilitate the spread of nationalist ideas and beliefs to a larger population who were illiterate. For example, even after the partition of Poland, the traditional music and language aided to keep the nationalist feeling alive among the masses. In 1831, after Poland was taken over by Russia, armed rebellions against the Russian forces were repeatedly suppressed. During those times of distress, language served as a weapon for the Polish citizens. The protests and meetings increasingly began to be organised with the language of communication as Polish. Eventually, it emerged as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance.

c) Folk songs and folklore: German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder believed that it was possible to discover German culture only via the common masses. The only way to popularise the spirit of the nation was through its folk songs, folk dances and stories. Hence, it became crucial to gather and preserve them to protect the nation.

Ques.3: Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Ans.3: The best examples of how nations developed over the nineteenth century are Germany and Italy.

Germany

  • In Germany, people from the middle class section of society began coming together and forming political associations. These associations was given the responsibility of electing a parliament.
  • Therefore, on May 18, 1848, the Frankfurt Parliament was elected with 831 members.
  • The parliament was summoned in St. Paul Church and there they drafted the constitution for Germany.
  • When offered the crown to make Germany a constitutional monarchy, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia rejected it and joined other kings to oppose the parliament.
  • As the parliament majorly constituted of the middle class, they began ignoring the demands of the peasants and artisans which made them lose popular support. Also, the monarchy continued to grow stronger. Eventually, the parliament was dismissed and once again, monarchy took over.
  • After this, Prussia began leading the struggle for unification, mainly headed by Otto von Bismarck.
  • Finally, in 1871, after winning three wars against Austria, Denmark and France, Germany completed the process of unification. King Kaiser William I of Prussia was crowned as the king of unified Germany.

Italy

  • During the nineteenth century, Italy consisted of seven states, out of which only Sardinia-Piedmont was an Italian princely state.
  • Italian as a language was not uniform across the region, and witnessed various dialects.
  • Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionary, began a programme to unite Italy. He also formed a secret society named Young Italy in order to unite people.
  • The uprisings in 1831 and 1848 failed. Then, it was Count Camillo e Cavour who lead the struggle for the movement. He helped Italy in entering a diplomatic alliance with France, which helped in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
  • In 1860, populations of South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was taken over. Finally, in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned as the king of united Italy.

Ques.4: How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Ans.4: The rise of Britain as a nation is considered to be a long-drawn process and not a result of any revolution. Before the eighteenth century, there was no common identity provision for the people inhabiting in the British Isles. The only identities that existed were those of English, Scots, Irish, and Welsh. These were different ethnic groups, each with its own independent culture and heritage.

However, the English nation among these was the only one who witnessed prosperity and grew in power and wealth over time, thereby increasing its importance in the global context. This power helped the English state from spreading and exerting its influence over other island nations. After the removal of monarchy from power in 1688, the English Parliament became instrumental in the formation of a nation-state. In 1707, the Act of Union was established, which resulted in the formation of ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. This gave England the power to fully control the territory of Scotland. This also led to the dominance of English influence in the British Parliament. As a result, English began to suppress the traditions and cultures of Scotland, and the identity of the British took over. Any attempt by the Scottish people to assert their independence was suppressed. There were restrictions on the use of their traditional style of clothing and language , and a large number of people were forced to leave their hometown.

England gained control over Ireland by taking advantage of the rift between the Catholics and Protestants. The Protestants were a minority in Ireland. However, the English largely helped them to gain control and establish dominance over the Catholic majority. After struggles and revolts, eventually, Ireland was taken over by England and hence it became a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The English culture was largely propagated, side-lining all the other cultures. The different nation-states were unified under symbols like a new flag, national anthem, and the common language, English. The other nations eventually lost their uniqueness and survived only by conforming to the British rules.

Ques.5: Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Ans.5: Nationalist tensions emerged in the Balkans due to the following reasons:

  • The Balkans region consisted of modern-day countries like Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Initially, a large region of the Balkans was controlled by the Ottoman empire.
  • Eventually, with the spread of nationalism, the Ottoman Empire grew weak.
  • The population of Balkan also began claiming their histories as independent nations and started demanding independence.
  • The various Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity. Also, the Balkan states started becoming jealous of each other.

This made the Balkan region prone to fierce conflicts.




Topics Covered in Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 History (Social Science)

1. The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation

2. The Making of Nationalism in Europe

2.1 The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

2.2 What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?

2.3 A New Conservatism after 1815

2.4 The Revolutionaries

3. The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

3.1 The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

3.2 Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt

3.3 1848: The Revolution of the Liberals

4. The Making of Germany and Italy

4.1 Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?

4.2 Italy Unified

4.3 The Strange Case of Britain

5. Visualising the Nation

6. Nationalism and Imperialism

Important Terms Relevant for NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe :

Absolutist: This is a form of government where all the powers are vested in the ruler and there are no restrictions on the usage of the power. It is also known as monarchical government.

Utopian: An ideal state of the society which is unlikely to exist.

Plebiscite: A direct system of voting where the citizens vote in favour or against a proposal.

Suffrage: The right to vote.

Conservatism: Conservatism refers to the political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs like the Church, and preferred gradual development to quick change.

Feminist: An ideology supporting equal social, political, and economic rights of women.

Ideology: A system of ideas and beliefs that reflects a particular social and political vision.

Ethnic: A group or system that relates to common racial, background, or tribal origin that a community identifies with.

Allegory: The expression of an abstract idea through a person or a thing.

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