Climate Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers covers various types i.e. Very short, Short and Long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
The chapter deals with the climate of India and its variations. The chapter begins with a description of the factors controlling the climate. The following section discusses the Indian monsoon. The chapter further deals with the different seasons in India. The chapter ends with a description of the distribution of rainfall across the country and its importance for the country.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
Ques.1: Define weather.
Ans.1: Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions of any area at a point of time.
Ques.2: Define climate.
Ans.2: The total of weather conditions of a large area over a long time, mostly 31 years, is known as climate.
Ques.3: The climate of India is described as the ______ type.
Ques.4: List the elements of weather and climate.
Ans.4: The elements of weather and climate are:
- Distance from the sea
Ques.5: What is the loo?
Ans.5: Loo is the strong, gust, hot, and dry winds that blow over the north and northwestern India during the summer days.
Ques.6: What are mango showers?
Ans.6: These are the pre-monsoon showers that help in the ripening of mangoes.
Ques.7: From which sea do the Western Disturbances originate?
Ans.7: Mediterranean Sea
Ques.8: Why do coastal areas experience fewer contrasts in temperature?
Ans.9: The coastal areas experience fewer contrasts in temperature due to the moderating influence of the sea.
Ques.9: Define Coriolis Force.
Ans.9: The force generated by the rotation of the earth is the Coriolis Force. This force deflects the winds to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. It is also called as Ferrell’s Law.
Ques.10: Describe the Western Cyclonic Disturbances.
Ans.10: The western cyclonic disturbances emerge in the Mediterranean Sea. They have a major influence over the weather conditions of the north and northwestern India.
Ques.11: India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as sub-tropical climate. Explain.
Ans.11: As the Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country, it divides the country into two halves. The northern half lies in the tropical area and the southern half lies in the sub-tropical region. Hence, India experiences the characteristics of both tropical as well as subtropical climate.
Ques.12: What is ITCZ?
Ans.12: The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a low-pressure trough formed over the equatorial latitudes. The northeast and southeast trade winds converge in this region. It lies roughly over the equator, with north or south movement depending on the position of the sun.
Ques.13: What is the burst of the monsoon?
Ans.13: Right before the arrival of the monsoons, the amount of rainfall increases and becomes more than normal. This is known as the burst of monsoon.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Discuss the phenomena of retreating monsoon.
Ans.1: When the sun starts moving towards the south, the low-pressure trough over the Indian subcontinent begins to weaken and high-pressure regions begin to develop. The southwest monsoon also begins to weaken and gradually withdraw. By October beginning, it withdraws from the Northern Plains. The skies become clear, the day temperature rises, nights become cool. As the land is still moist, the high temperatures of the daytime lead to increased humidity and oppressive weather conditions. This is known as the October Heat. By mid-October, the temperature begins to fall in northern India and low pressure develops over the Bay of Bengal by early November. This causes cyclones over the Andaman Sea.
Ques.2: Describe the distribution of rainfall across the Indian mainland.
Ans.2: Rainfall is highly variable across the Indian mainland. The western coast and northeast India receive over 400 cm of rainfall. As opposed to this, areas of western Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana receive less than 60 cm rainfall. Areas of low precipitation also include interiors of the Deccan plateau, east of the Sahyadris, and Leh in Jammu and Kashmir. Rest of the country receives moderate rainfall. The Himalayan regions receive snowfall. The overall rainfall is highly variable in India. Some regions are prone to droughts while others drown in floods.
Ques.3: The Western Ghats receive more rainfall than the Eastern Ghats. Why?
Ans.3: The Western Ghats receive more rainfall than the Eastern Ghats due to the following reasons:
- The Western Ghats are higher in height as compared to the Eastern Ghats. This facilitates the obstruction of the rain-bearing winds.
- Moreover, as the Western Ghats are continuous, they provide easy obstruction of the rain-bearing winds, thus causing heavy rains on the windward side of the Western Ghats.
Ques.4: Differentiate between Southwest and Northeast monsoons.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Describe in detail the pressure and wind system of India.
Ans.1: The pressure and wind system of largely affects the climate of India. These atmospheric conditions majorly include:
- Pressure and surface winds: India has unique pressure and wind conditions. There is the presence of high-pressure conditions in the north during the winters. Winds blow from India to the low-pressure regions over the ocean. During summers, there is a reversal in the pressure conditions. A low-pressure area develops over the interiors of Asia and attracts winds from the high-pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean. These winds blow in a southeasterly direction. They cross the equator, turn right towards the low-pressure regions. These winds, on their way, pick up moisture and cause rains over the Indian subcontinent. These are the Southwest Monsoon winds.
- Upper air circulation: The westerly flow dominates the upper air circulation. The jet streams are an important component of this flow. Jet streams are a narrow belt of fast-flowing winds in the upper reaches of the troposphere. These winds blow in the westerly direction, over a height of 12,000 meters. They blow over 27⁰-30⁰ Their speed varies from 110 km/h in summers to 184 km/h in winters. They have a major impact on the climate of India.
- Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones: The westerly flow of jet streams south of Himalayas creates a depression in the Indian subcontinent, attracting the western cyclonic disturbances. These are experienced in north and northwestern areas of the country.
Ques.2: Discuss the factors that control the climate.
Ans.2: The factors that control the climate are:
- Latitude: The amount of sunlight received at various latitudes varies. As a result, the temperature drops as we move towards the poles.
- Altitude: As the altitude increases, the air becomes thinner and the temperature declines. As a result, the mountains and hill stations have lower temperatures in summers also.
- Pressure and wind system: Temperature and rainfall in a region depend on the pressure and wind system. And this system in return is dependent on latitude and rainfall.
- Distance from the sea: The sea exerts a moderating influence on the weather conditions. As the distance from the sea increases, the temperature begins to change. Thus, the weather conditions experienced in the interiors are extreme. This is also known as continentality.
- Ocean currents: The ocean currents are responsible for determining the temperature of the winds blowing over the oceans.
- Relief: The relief features play a major role in determining the climate of a place. High mountains help in obstructing rain-bearing winds that cause rainfall. They also act as barriers for cold and hot winds. For example, Himalayas block the cold winds coming from Siberia, thus protecting India.
Ques.3: Write a detailed note on the hot weather season.
Ans.3: As the sun begins to move towards the north, the global heat belt also begins to shift northward. Hence, the summer season is experienced from March to May. The temperatures begin to rise gradually. In March, the highest temperature goes 38⁰C and increases up to 42⁰C in April. By May, the temperatures rise to 45⁰C in northwestern India. However, Peninsular India experiences lower temperatures due to the moderating influence of the oceans. As the temperature rises all through the summer months, a low-pressure area forms, extending from the Thar Desert in Rajasthan to Patna and Chota Nagpur plateau in the east. Air circulations also start in the summer months. These winds are known as loo. These are strong, gusty, hot dry winds that blow over north and northwestern India. Dust storms are also common. Sometimes, these dust storms may bring in light showers. As the summers begin to end, pre-monsoon showers become common in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and nearby regions. These are known as the mango showers as they help in the ripening of the mangoes.
If you have any feedbacks on Climate Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers please write us on comment box.