Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in Print Culture and the Modern World. The chapter begins with a discussion about the print culture in Asia, particularly China and Japan. The following section deals with the spread and development of printing culture in Europe. One of the sections discusses the invention of the printing press. The following section deals with the print revolution and its impacts on different sections of the society. The next section discusses the rise of the reading mania and the role of print culture in the French Revolution followed by discussion on how the reading audience expanded with the innovations in printing technology. Further, the chapter discusses the manuscript culture in India in ancient times and the following print culture in the country. The next few sections describe how the popularisation of print culture had impacts on religious reform, and finally how new forms of publication emerged. The chapter ends with a discussion on the topic print censorship.
Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short : 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: Describe the features of the Chinese’s accordion book.
Ans.1: The Chinese accordion book had thin, porous papers which were difficult to print on. They were folded and stitched at the sides and had handmade calligraphy on them.
Ques.2: Which is the oldest printed Japanese book?
Ans.2: Diamond Sutra
Ques.3: Why was the circulation of manuscripts limited?
Ans.3: The circulation of manuscripts was limited as their making was a laborious and a time-consuming task. Also, as the papers were highly thin and porous, the manuscripts were very delicate and could not be carried around easily.
Ques.4: Which was the first book printed by Gutenberg?
Ques.5: Who wrote the Ninety-Five Thesis?
Ans.5: Martin Luther King
Ques.6: When and where was a children’s press set up?
Ans.6: The children’s press was set up in 1857 in France.
Ques.7: What was the Shilling Series?
Ans.7: The popular, cheap book series was sold in Europe during the 1920s.
Ques.8: When and in which Indian state did the printing press first arrive?
Ans.8: The first printing press arrived in India in Goa in the mid-sixteenth century.
Ques.9: Who brought out the weekly Bengal Gazette?
Ans.9: Gangadhar Bhattacharya
Ques.10: Who published Sambad Kaumbdi and when?
Ans.10: Rammohun Roy published Sambad Kaumbdi in 1921.
Ques.11: Name a few women authors who wrote extensively during the development of the press in India.
Ans.11: Rashsundari Debi, Kailashbashini Debi, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai
Ques.12: Who authored the following texts?
a) Amar Jiban
b) Istri Dharam Vichar
d) Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawaal
e) Sacchi Kahaniyan
Ans.12: The authors of the above texts are:
a) Rashsundari Debi
b) Ram Chaddha
c) Jyotiba Phule
e) Sudarshan Chakra
Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer : 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Describe the introduction and development of print culture in Japan.
Ans.1: Hand-printing technology was introduced in Japan by the Buddhist missionaries of China in around 768-770 AD. Diamond Sutra was the oldest Japanese printed book, published in 868 AD. The print was found everywhere, in playing cards to paper money, to others.Poems and prose were also widely published.
Eventually, as the country began developing, so did the art and practices of publishing. Edo (present-day Tokyo) was an upcoming urban centre, where print culture transformed significantly. The urban culture was now represented in the form of illustrations. Libraries were coming up in large numbers with hand-printed books on a wide variety of topics and genres.
Ques.2: The new technology did not entirely displace the existing art of producing books by hands. Explain.
Ans.2: The new technology did not entirely displace the existing art of producing books by hand. In the initial stages, the printed books closely resembled the hand-written books. Only the letters were printed with the printing press. The patterns and illustrations were still handmade. The rich people could choose from a set of designs and scribes to draw those designs on their books.
Ques.3: How did the invention of the printing press change the reading culture?
Ans.3: As the number of books printed increased significantly with the invention of the printing press, so did the number of readers also amplified. Now the books could be produced easily, reaching a wider section of the population. Earlier, reading was restricted to the elites, and other people relied on knowledge received orally. Print helped reading become an activity that anyone could do. But the transition to reading culture was difficult as much of the population was illiterate and could not read. Thus, for the books to reach wider masses, books were printed with folk tales and ballads with illustrations so that even the illiterate could read. Oral culture remained a major part of society. The popular poems and ballads were still transmitted through oral culture to the public, and eventually, the concepts of reading and hearing intermingled.
Ques.4: What was the implication of print culture on religion in early modern Europe?
Ans.4: As the reading public increased with the increasing number of printed books, a society with discussions and debates emerged. People began reading widely and discussing their ideas and opinions. This spread of knowledge and wide discussion were feared by the religious people as they were apprehensive of such effects of print. They feared that if the printed material wasn’t controlled, it would turn people irreligious and valuable literature will be destroyed. This led to criticism of the printed literature. As a result of this criticism, the Protestant Reformation began.Martin Luther supported the idea of print, he wrote Ninety-Five Theses which criticised the rituals and practices of the Church and invited the Church to debate his ideas. His writings became widely popular and his translation of the New Testament sold 5,000 copies within weeks.
Ques.5: Who was Louise-Sebastian Mercier? What kind of writings did he publish?
Ans.5: Louise-Sebastian Mercier was a novelist during eighteenth-century in France. He believed that the spread of print culture would put an end to despotism. His writings were greatly driven by reading. In his novels, the hero was portrayed as a character who was transformed by the act of reading. It were the books and reading that enlightened the protagonist, and he was lost in the world of books.
Ques.6: Discuss the innovations in printing during the nineteenth century.
Ans.6: The world of printing witnessed many breakthroughs in the nineteenth century.
- Richard M. Hoe invented the power-driven cylindrical press, which could print 8,000 sheets per hour.
- An offset press was developed which could print 6 colours at a time.
- The electrically operated press was put to use in the twentieth century, and the quality of papers became better with each passing day.
- Feeding paper techniques improved and automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the color register were also introduced.
Ques.7: Describe the manuscripts in India before the arrival of print.
Ans.7: India had an old tradition of manuscripts in various languages, Arabic, Sanskrit, and other vernacular languages. These manuscripts were created on the palm leaves or handmade paper. The pages had beautiful handmade illustrations. These manuscripts were sewn together and pressed between wooden covers to get them preserved.
Ques.8: Who was James Augustus Hickey? Discuss his contribution to printing in India.
Ans.8: James Augustus Hickey was the head of a private English enterprise which was independent of the colonial influence. His enterprise began printing in India. He began editing the Bengal Gazette in 1780. He published various advertisements along with the gossips about the British officials. Enraged by this, Governor-General Warren Hastings ordered his execution.
Ques.9: Discuss the new forms of publication.
Ans.9: As the printing culture began to expand, so did the readership and the types of publications. People began aspiring to read their own lives and experiences, which led to the development of the literary firm in Europe called a novel. These provided people with diverse stories and experiences. Other literary forms, like poems, essays, etc. also came up, that affected the thinking of the people in social and political spheres of life. With time, a new visual culture developed. Visual images were widely printed. The paintings by famous painters could now be reproduced widely. Calendars and cheap prints also became popular. All these began impacting the society and its culture. Publication of cartoons and caricatures also became popular.
Ques.10: Why did the British officials impose press censorship in India?
Ans.10: Initially, the print censorship by the British was limited to the British presses in India that defamed the British rule. However, as the print culture expanded and people began reading widely, the British government passed certain laws that permitted only those newspapers to get published that printed material glorifying the British rule. These laws were revised on the request of the editors of some English and vernacular newspapers. However, as the nationalist movement strengthened and people began mobilising masses with the help of print culture, the Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 and major restrictions were imposed on the print activities.
Class 10 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Discuss the development of print culture in China.
Ans.1: China is known to have discovered the earliest form of printing which was known as hand printing. The traditional Chinese accordion book has been in existence since 594 AD.
These books had thin, porous papers which were difficult to print on. They were folded and stitched at the sides and had hand calligraphy on them.
As the imperial rule in China required bureaucrats, they conducted civil service examinations. For this purpose, books were printed in huge numbers by the imperial state. As the number of examination candidates increased, so did the number of printed books.
As urbanisation increased in China, the uses of print diversified. Now, merchants used to print for the purpose of keeping records of trade. Readership also diversified as people now read for leisure.
Women too began reading, writing, and publishing poetry and plays. The print in China also witnesses technological development. Mechanical presses reached China with the Western powers, and hence China witnessed a gradual shift from hand printing to mechanical printing.
Ques.2: Discuss the spread of printing in Europe.
Ans.2: The technique of woodblock printing was unknown to Europe. Manuscripts were produced in Europe with the help of paper that reached Europe from China. It wasn’t until 1295 when Marco Polo, an Italian explorer who had returned from China where he learnt the technique of woodblock printing and introduced it in Italy. Italians now began producing hand-printed books. However, the expensive copies were still hand-written. The king and other aristocratic family members preferred hand-printed books only as they represented luxury. Only students and merchants used the hand-printed books. The technique gradually spread from Italy to other parts of Europe.
Eventually, the demand for printed books increased around the world and Europe began printing a large number of books to sell. Books were exported to other countries and book fairs were also organised. However, it was difficult to efficiently produce such huge numbers of books by hands and it was a time-consuming and laborious task to make manuscripts. Moreover, the manuscripts were very fragile and they could not be circulated widely. This helped in increasing the popularity of woodblock printing. It was then widely used to print cards, textiles, religious pictures, etc. It was only after 1430s when Gutenberg invented the printing press did the practice of printing transformed.
Ques.3: Discuss the reading mania in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe.
Ans.3: As the literacy rates in Europe rose during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, reading culture spread widely. Schools were set up across Europe, spreading literacy among the peasants and children. This created a reading mania in Europe. Books were printed in huge numbers to meet the demand of the people. New kinds of literature emerged depending upon the choices and diversity of the reading audiences. Almanac and calendars and printed folktales and ballads were sold widely in the form of little, cheap books that were sold by peddlers. Soon, reading emerged as a leisure activity. To reach this ever-increasing audience, different kinds of books were printed. Penny chapbooks became popular in England. These were little books that were sold for a penny by chapmen. Biliotheque Bleue was popular in France. These were low-priced small books that were printed on poor quality paper. Romances were also published along with histories. The periodical press was developed and it began publishing current affairs with entertainment.
Newspapers and informational journals were also widely printed. Eventually, scientific texts, both ancient and new were also printed. The writings and discoveries of various scholars like Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Newton started getting published widely and being read.
Ques.4: Print culture created the conditions in the French Revolution. Discuss.
Ans.4: It is often said that the print culture created the conditions in the French Revolution. The reasons were as follows:
a) Print greatly influenced the ideas of Enlightenment for thinkers and scholars. Their writings on the monarchial rule and condemned despotism, tradition, and superstition were widely criticized. They demanded the rule of reason. The excessive powers of the Church and the monarch were questioned by them. People widely read works of Voltaire and Rousseau and began reasoning questioning and analyzing. The began thinking rationally and critically.
b) The widespread popularity of printed material also created spacer for public discussions and debates. This provided people with exposure to new ideas. This made people think reasonably and question existing beliefs and ideas and eventually led to the rise of a social revolution.
c) As the literature diversified, it began mocking the rule of the monarchy and questioned its morality. People began opposing the existing social order. Cartoons and caricatures came up that mocked the monarchy of being self-absorbed, and ignoring the public and its problems. Hostile sentiments against the monarchy also emerged.
However, it is not completely correct to say that print created conditions in the French Revolution as people were exposed to a variety of literature, some of which promoted revolution and some justified the Church and rule of monarchy. It was greatly depended on what kinds of ideas people accepted. We can say that print provided people with a plethora of ideas to shape their views and opinions.
Ques.5: How did mass literacy in Europe bring in new readers?
Ans.5: As literacy increased in Europe and more people had access to the reading material, different sections of the society who were previously oblivious of reading began entering the arena of readers. Most important of them were children, women, and workers.
a) Children: As primary education was now compulsory, children emerged as the members of the new readership. School textbooks were widely printed to fulfil the demands. A children’s press was set up in France in 1857 which was solely dedicated to publishing books for the children. This press published both new stories and old fairytales. The old tales were modified and viewed as vulgar or obscene for children were omitted from the tales.
b) Women: Women emerged as important readers and writers. Penny books and manuals on how to be good housewives were specially meant for women.Also a number of women novelists emerged that that changed the traditional definition of a woman from being just a subject of men’s dominance to being a person with a will, determination, and power to think. Some famous women novelists were Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, and George Eliot.
c) Workers: As more and more books were printed; lending libraries also came into existence. Now, white-collar workers, artisans, and lower-middle-class people could lend books and educate themselves. They often wrote autobiographies and political tracts widely.
Ques.6: Religious texts reached a wide circle of people, encouraging discussions, debates and controversies. Explain.
Ans.6:Just as printed literature began spreading across various sections in the society and people began reading widely, they were now exposed to a multitude of new ideas that helped them reason and question the existing beliefs and practices. They began reinterpreting existing literature. Public discussions and debates became popular. Now that people were thinking, they demanded reforms, both in society and in case of religion.
These intense debates made people rethink their religious beliefs. Hindu rituals like widow immolation, Brahmanical priesthood, were discussed and controversies were created. Many kinds of tracts and newspapers came up in Bengal that published debates and discussions around religious topics. The ideas were majorly printed in vernacular languages so that a wide section of people could be reached. Sambad Kaumbdi was published by Rammohun Roy in the year 1821. Persian newspapers, Jam-i-Jahan Nama and Shamsul Akhbar also came up in 1822. The Bombay Samachar, a Gujarati newspaper also was started.
In north India, cheap lithographic presses came up that published Persian and Urdu translations of holy scriptures as the Muslim leaders feared forceful conversion by the colonial powers. The Deoband Seminary was found in 1867 that printed fatwas instructed Muslims on how to conduct themselves in daily life, based on sharia.
Hindu texts were also widely reproduced in vernacular languages. Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas was printed in 1810. Numerous presses were set up that printed scriptures in vernacular languages, most popular among them being the Naval Kishore Press at Lucknow and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay.With wide production and print in vernacular languages, the reach of the texts increased like never before, and this began striking a number of discussions.
Religious texts, therefore, reached a very wide circle of people, encouraging discussions, debates and controversies within and among different religious groups.
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