Class 10 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in The Making of a Global World. The chapter begins with a discussion of the pre-modern world and how during those times, trade and culture were transported to different regions across the world. The section also discusses the contribution of diseases in facilitating the colonial powers to take control of new areas. The next section discusses the global scenario during the late nineteenth century. This section includes discussions on the global economy, technological advancements, the Cattle Plague, Indian indentured labour and global trade. The following section discusses the global conditions post the World Wars and how USA emerged as the hegemonic power. The section also talks about the Great Depression of 1929 and its impacts on the Indian Economy. The chapter ends with a discussion of the post-war settlements and the emergence of the concept of globalisation.
Class 10 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short : 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: For what reasons did travel occur in ancient times?
Ans.1: The reasons for travel in ancient times included knowledge, spiritual fulfilment, opportunity, or to escape spiritual fulfilment.
Ques.2: Who discovered the Americas?
Ans.2: Christopher Columbus
Ques.3: Who were Americas’ original inhabitants?
Ans.3: The American Indians
Ques.4: What was El Dorado?
Ans.4: El Dorado was the fabled city which was considered to be made of gold.
Ques.5: What was the condition of Europe until the nineteenth century?
Ans.5: In nineteenth-century, poverty and hunger were widespread in Europe. The population was high and prone to deadly diseases.
Ques.6: What were the Corn Laws?
Ans.6: The Corn Laws were the laws that restricted the import of corn in Britain.
Ques.7: What were the Canal Colonies?
Ans.7: The Canal Colonies referred to the areas irrigated by the new peasants in Punjab.
Ques.8: Why do certain African countries have straight borders?
Ans.8: During the colonial times, different regions in Africa were under the control of different European powers. Hence, all the European powers met in 1885 in Berlin to divide Africa among them. This division was done by making straight borders.
Ques.9: Which states in present-day India supplied indentured labour in the past?
Ans.9: The present-day states that supplied indentured labour in the past are eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and a few districts of Tamil Nadu.
Ques.10: Name the major destinations of the Indian indentured labour.
Ans.10: The major destinations of the Indian indentured labour were Caribbean islands, mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam, Mauritius, Fiji, Ceylon and Malaya.
Ques.11: When was indentured labour abolished?
Ans.11: Indentured labour was abolished in the year 1921.
Ques.12: Name the groups of bankers and traders who financed export agriculture.
Ans.12: Shikaripuri shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiars
Ques.13: How did USA become an international creditor?
Ans.13: During the war, Britain borrowed large sums of money from USA to fulfil the economic needs and repay the debts. This made USA an international creditor.
Ques.14: Who were coolies?
Ans.14: The descendants of Indian indentured labour were referred to as coolies.
Ques.15: Which was the world’s first mass-produced car?
Ans.15: T-Model Ford.
Ques.16: Why were the urban areas of India less affected by the Depression?
Ans.16: The urban areas were less affected in India as most of the population living in these areas had fixed incomes, which made them less susceptible to the economic challenges of the Depression.
Ques.17: Which are the Bretton Woods institutions?
Ans.17: International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) are the three Bretton Woods institutions
Ques.18: What is the international monetary system?
Ans.18: The system linking national currencies and monetary system is known as the international monetary system.
Ques.19: Why did the fixed exchange rate system collapse? Which system replaced it?
Ans.19: After the war, during the 1960s, the US dollar began losing its value as the principal currency because it could not maintain its value against gold. This eventually led to the collapse of the fixed exchange rate system and it was replaced by the floating exchange rate system.
Class 10 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer : 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: What changes did British colonisers introduce in Africa to increase labour availability?
Ans.1: As Africa was a continent with rich natural resources and small population, they rarely needed to work for meagre wages. However, the colonial governments required workers to work in the mines and cultivate the fields. Thus, to recruit labour, heavy taxes were imposed. They also altered inheritance and now only one family member could inherit the land, forcing others to engage themselves as labourers. Movement restrictions were also imposed on mineworkers.
Ques.2: Indenture had been described as a ‘new form of slavery’. Why?
Ans.2: Indentured labour has been described as a ‘new form of slavery’ due to the following reasons:
a) The labourers were lied to about the modes of travel, working conditions, and final destinations.
b) The working conditions of the labourers were very harsh.
c) The less willing migrants were forcefully abducted.
d) The labourers had few or no legal rights.
Ques.3: What changes did the workers undertake to survive indentured labour?
Ans.3: The different ways the indentured labour adapted to survive the oppressive conditions were:
a) Forms of collective and individual self-expression were developed.
b) Muharram procession in Trinidad was transformed into ‘Hosay’, a riotous carnival.
c) The protest religion of Rastafarianism had social and cultural links with Indian migrants.
d) Chutney Music became a popular expression of post-indenture experience.
Ques.4: India played a crucial role in the world economy during the late nineteenth century. Explain.
Ans.4: During the nineteenth century, India was under the colonial rule of the Britishers. The raw materials like cotton and opium were grown in India and were transported to Britain to meet the raw material demand by the industries and the manufactured goods, in turn, were sold in India. As a result, large scale manufactured products of high value made way into the Indian markets. However, the raw materials that were taken to Britain were of comparatively lower value. Thus, Britain enjoyed a situation of ‘trade surplus’ with India. And this surplus helped Britain to balance its deficits with other countries. Thus, India played a crucial role in the world economy during the late nineteenth century.
Ques.5: Which was the first modern industrial war? Why was it called so?
Ans.5: The First World War was called the first modern industrial war because of the following reasons:
a) Modern weapons like machine guns, tanks, aircraft etc. were used on a grand scale.
b) All the industrial powers of the world back then were actively fighting the war.
c) Ships and trains were used on a massive scale to transport soldiers to the warfronts.
Ques.6: How was European society reorganised as a result of the war?
Ans.6: As a result of the First World War, most of the men in the working-age group were recruited to fight in the war. This made women step out of the houses to earn. Women began taking up jobs that were previously done by men. The economic ties between various industrial powers were severed. And in this scenario, the USA emerged as an international creditor.
Ques.7: What were the impacts of the spread of Fordist industrial practices?
Ans.7: The following were the impacts of the spread of Fordist industrial practices.
a) Prices of manufactured goods started to decline as they were produced in an enormous amount.
b) The wages increased and the demand for consumer durables also amplified.
c) Goods like refrigerators, cars, radios, etc. were purchased progressively through the system of hire purchase.
d) House ownership and construction work also increased. This led to an increase in investments in housing and related facilities.
Ques.8: What lessons were drawn from the inter-war economic experiences?
Ans.8: After the world wars, economists and politicians drew valuables lesson from their inter-war experiences. These were as follows:
a) It was understood that mass production could be sustained only if there was mass consumption by the society. And to ensure mass consumption, it was requisite to ensure stable incomes, which were possible if employment opportunities were steady. And this could not be completely ensured with the interplay of market forces and thus government intervention was important and became necessary.
b) Another important lesson learnt was that international economic links were crucial to ensure the flow of goods, labour, and capital.
Ques.9: What were the results of the Bretton Woods Conference?
Ans.9: As a result of the Bretton Woods Conference, institutions of International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank) were set up. The purpose of these institutions was to look into the surplus and deficits of the member nations. These institutions were popularly known as the Bretton Woods twins. The international monetary system was based on a fixed exchange rate, where all the currencies were examined,pegged against the US dollar and the dollar was anchored to gold.
Ques.10: How did the international financial system change during the mid-1970s?
Ans.10: Since the mid-1970s, the international finance system began to change. The developing world faced poverty and debt crisis as they were now forced to borrow money from private banks and lending institutions. Unemployment rates also soared high. Production operations were relocated to low-wage Asian countries.
Class 10 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer : 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: By 1980, a global agricultural economy had taken shape, accompanied by complex changes in labour movement pattern, capital flows, ecologies and technologies. Explain with an example.
Ans.1: The reasons behind the emergence of a global agricultural economy by 1980 were as follows:
a) The food production and consumption patterns in industrial Europe begun to change. As the populations and industries increased, the demand for food grains also spiked significantly. To safeguard the domestic agriculture, the Corn Laws were introduced which restricted the import of corn to other nations.
b) After the Corn Laws were scraped, it was cheaper to import corn than to produce it. Hence, cultivation declined and people lost their jobs. These people migrated to cities and other countries to find employment opportunities. Rapid industrialization also increased incomes to a certain extent.
c) At the same time due to imports, the prices of food grains fell, thereby increasing demand. To meet the demands in Britain, lands were cleared across the world in Russia, America and Australia.
d) To facilitate transportation of grains, railways and ports were required. And to cultivate lands, they had to be settled. All the capital required for these activities came from financial centers like London.
e) Labourers begun to migrate to places where labour was short to gain employment.
Therefore, it can be said that by 1980, a global agricultural economy had taken shape, accompanied by complex changes in labour movement pattern, capital flows, ecologies and technologies.
Ques.2: Discuss the rise of mass production in the USA with an example.
Ans.2: The US economy during the 1920s had a striking feature of mass production. The industries in the US adopted the technique of mass production. Henry Ford was the pioneer of mass production. He started the famous car company, Ford. In his industry, he adopted the technique of assembly-line production in the car plant in Detroit. As the assembly line would require the workers to repeat the same task mechanically at a constant speed, he realised that it would help in faster and cheaper production of vehicles. This helped him increase the per-worker output. A car came off the assembly line in just three minutes. The T-Model Ford was the world’s first mass-produced car.
Owing to the increased pace of work with the use of conveyor belts, the workers increasingly found it difficult to match the speed. As a result, they resigned. As the number of workers declined, in order to cope with the situation Ford increased the daily wages and banned trade unions to operate in his industrial units. As the wages were increased, workers came back, and this high wage was recovered by increasing the speed of the conveyor belt, making the workers increase their speed, and hence increasing production.
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