Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in Nationalism in India. The chapter focuses on the nationalist movements and struggles in India.The chapter begins by discussing the idea of satyagraha and the Non-Cooperation Movement. The following section discusses the spread of the movement across different regions in the country. The next section focuses on how the economic difficulties clubbed with the arrival of Simon Commission led to the Civil Disobedience Movement, and how the movement held a different significance for various sections of the society. The section also discusses the problems faced during the movement. The chapter ends by highlighting the importance of culture in unifying the Indian masses.
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short : 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: When and from where did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?
Ans.1: Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in January 1915.
Ques.2: At what places in India did Mahatma Gandhi organise the satyagraha struggles?
Ans.2: In 1917, Gandhiji organised Satyagraha in Champaran, Bihar and Kheda, Gujarat. He also organised satyagraha in 1918 in Ahmedabad.
Ques.3: When and by whom was the book Hind Swaraj written?
Ans.3: Mahatma Gandhi wrote the book in the year 1909.
Ques.4: What powers did the Rowlatt Act give to the British Government?
Ans.4: The Rowlatt Act empowered the British Government to arrest and detain political prisoners without trial, and the British government could suppress any kinds of political activity.
Ques.5: What did Mahatma Gandhi do to oppose the Rowlatt Act?
Ans.5: To oppose the Rowlatt act, Mahatma Gandhi organised a hartal on 6 April 1913. During the hartal, the workers went on strike and the shops were closed down. Rallies were widely organised in various cities.
Ques.6: When did the Jallianwala Bagh incident take place?
Ans.6: 13 April 1913
Ques.7: Name a few regional leaders during the Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement.
Ans.7: Bada Ramchandra and Alluri Sitaram Raju.
Ques.8: When was the Oudh Kisan Sabha set up? Who headed the Sabha?
Ans.8: The Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up in October 1920. It was led by Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba Ramchandra.
Ques.9: Give two instances showing how the Non-Cooperation Movement misinterpreted.
Ans.9: The idea of Swaraj and the Non-Cooperation Movement was misinterpreted in Awadh and Andhra Pradesh. In both these places, the movement gradually turned into armed rebellion, a form of protest that Mahatma Gandhi highly disapproved of.
Ques.10: What was the Inland Emigration Act of 1859?
Ans.10: The Inland Emigration Act of 1859 forced the workers to stay back at the tea gardens. They were not allowed to leave the gardens without permission nor were they given the permission to do so.
Ques.11: Who formed the Swaraj Party?
Ans.11: C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru
Ques.12: When and by whom was the demand for ‘Purna Swaraj’ formalised?
Ans.12: The demand for ‘Purna Swaraj’ was formalised by the Lahore Congress session held in December 1929.
Ques.13: Which event marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Ans.13: The Dandi March.
Ques.14: How was the Civil Disobedience Movement different from the Non-Cooperation Movement?
Ans.14: The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement as the Civil Disobedience Movement also encouraged the people to break the laws apart from only boycotting the British goods.
Ques.15: When was the Gandhi-Irwin pact signed? What did it lead to?
Ans.15: The Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931. Through this pact, the British government agreed to release the political prisoners of the Civil Disobedience Movement and also made Gandhiji agree to the decision of attending the second Round Table Conference.
Ques.16: When was the Poona Pact signed? Who were the signatories? What was its result?
Ans.16: The Poona Pact was signed by Mahatma Gandhi and Dr B.R. Ambedkar in September 1932. As a result of this act, the Depressed Classes were granted reserved seats in the provisional and central legislative councils.
Ques.17: Which industrial organisations were set up to organise the business interests?
Ans.17: The industrial organisations that were set up to organise the business interests were:
- Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920
- Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927
Ques.18: Who were the Harijans?
Ans.18: The Harijans were the untouchables. This name, which meant ‘God’s children’ was given to them by Mahatma Gandhi.
Ques.19: What major problem was faced in the way cultural influence was used to unify the Indian masses?
Ans.19: When the past was being glorified, the stories and iconography used were primarily Hindu, which made the other communities feel left out and created a feeling of discrimination.
Ques.20: Who created the first image of Bharat Mata? What other creations did the same artist create?
Ans.20: The first image of Bharat Mata was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Other also wrote the song ‘VandeMataram’ and the book of Anandmath.
Ques.21: Who painted the first famous image of Bharat Mata? How was the image portrayed?
Ans.21:The first famous image of Bharat Mata was painted by Abanindranath Tagore. The image was that of an aesthetic figure. She is composed, calm, spiritual and divine by nature.
Ques.22: What were the characteristics of the tricolour created in Bengal during the Swadeshi Movement?
Ans.22: The characteristics of the tricolour created during the Swadeshi Movement were:
- The colours of red, green and yellow,
- Eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India, and
- A crescent-shaped moon symbolising Hindu-Muslim unity.
Ques.23: Who designed the Swaraj flag? What were its characteristics?
Ans.23: The Swaraj Flag was designed by Mahatma Gandhi in 1921. Apart from being tricolor (red, green and white), it also had a spinning wheel in the centre, depicting the Gandhian idea of self-help.
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer : 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: What was the result of the Jallianwala Bagh incident?
Ans.1: As a result of the Jallianwala Bagh incident, people all around the country were enraged. Strikes were organised and government buildings were attacked. There were clashes among the people and the police. To suppress the uprising, the protesting masses were brutally oppressed and humiliated. Villages were bombed, and the satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground and crawl on the streets. Due to the violent uprisings, Mahatma Gandhi called off the disobedience movement.
Ques.2: Why was there a need to unite Hindus and Muslims? How did Gandhi ji achieve it?
Ans.2: There were differences among the Hindus and Muslims from the very beginning. Mahatma Gandhi believed that to launch a nation-wide movement, it was important to unite the Hindus and Muslims. Thus, to achieve this, he negotiated with the leaders of the Khilafat Movement, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali to organise a non-cooperation movement in order to support both the movements i.e. Khilafat and swaraj.
Ques.3: How was the Non-Cooperation Khilafat Movement carried in towns? Why did it gradually lose the momentum?
Ans.3: In towns, people belonging to middle-class participated in the movement enthusiastically. All the students and professors left the government-controlled schools and universities and the lawyers gave up their legal practices. Also, the council elections were boycotted. Economical loss to the British government came when the foreign goods were boycotted and burnt and liquor shops were picketed. The sales of the imported cloth reduced and that of handloom textile mills increased.
However, as khadi was highly expensive, not all sections of the society could afford to buy it. Also, as there were no educational institutions other than the British ones, and for the new ones to come up it would have taken a lot of time, as a result the students, teachers and other government officials eventually had to return back to the schools, colleges, and offices. Hence, the movement lost its momentum in towns.
Ques.4: What factors shaped Indian politics in the 1920s?
Ans.4: The factors that shaped Indian Politics in the 1920s were:
a) The global economic depression due to which the agricultural prices fell and the peasantry was hard hit.
b) The arrival of the Simon Commission in India to evaluate the constitutional system. Moreover, the Commission had no Indian member which angered the Indian masses even further.
Ques.5: How did the British government react to the Civil Disobedience Movement? What was its result?
Ans.5: The British government was afraid of the advancements that the Civil Disobedience Movement made. Thus, to repress the movement, the Congress leaders were arrested. This infuriated the masses and resulted in Violent clashes. When Mahatma Gandhi’s disciple were arrested, large scale demonstrations were organised. And when Mahatma Gandhi himself was arrested, all the structures symbolising the British rule were attacked. In retaliation, satyagrahis were arrested by the government.
As a result of such uprisings, Gandhiji decided to call off the movement and signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact on 5 March 1931, through which Gandhiji agreed to participate in the Second Round Table Conference in London.
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer : 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Why, according to Gandhiji, was the Non-Cooperation Movement needed? How was the movement planned and executed?
Ans.1: Mahatma Gandhi firmly believed that a major reason why the British rule strengthened in India was the cooperation showed by the Indians. He stated this idea in his book Hind Swaraj and also wrote that the only way to weaken the British rule was to refuse to cooperate with them. For this reason, Mahatma Gandhi considered the Non-Cooperation Movement as very important. The movement was planned and executed as follows:
a) The first step taken by Gandhiji was to give up all the titles awarded by the British government. He also suggested to boycott civil services, police districts, courts, army and legislative councils.
b) If these attempts were repressed, then a full civil disobedience movement was planned to be launched.
c) However, there emerged an internal tussle within the Congress as a section of the members of the political group wanted to participate in the elections.
d) They believed that the only way to oppose the British rule was to be a part of the council.
e) Eventually, the Non-Cooperation Programme was adopted after a compromise was worked out at Nagpur session of the Congress in December 1920.
Ques.2: Which different sections of the society participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement? What were their different demands?
Ans.2: The different sections that participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement were:
a) Rich peasant community: These majorly included the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh. These groups were the producers of commercial crops and were severely hit by the economic depression. Due to falling prices and reduced income, it became difficult for them to pay taxes. They were mainly interested in the struggle as they wanted the revenue rates to be reduced.
b) Poor peasant community:The concern of the poor peasantry was to get the taxes reduced as well as for the need of the remission of the unpaid rent as owing to the depression that took place their incomes became meagre. However, their demands were not propagated and listened to as Congress thought that waving off the rents would upset the landlords.
c) Business-class:The colonial government largely restricted business activities. Hence, the business class saw the movement as an opportunity to enhance their business interests and increase trading opportunities. The Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress was set up in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927 was to organize the business interests. They supplied financial assistance for the movement. However, after the second Round Table Conference failed, the industrialists’ enthusiasm declined.
d) Industrial working-class: Only the industrial workers from Nagpur participated in the movement widely. They demanded better working conditions and higher wages. However, just like the small peasants, the working class was also neglected as the Congress was apprehensive of how the industrialists would react.
e) Women: Women too actively participated in the movement. During the Dandi March, they gathered widely to listen to Mahatma Gandhi. They participated in protests and picketed liquor shops. However, these women majorly came from upper-class families in urban areas and rich peasant families in rural areas. Their overall position did not seem to improve as Mahatma Gandhi firmly believed that it was the duty of women to look after the household. Women had more value as a symbolic presence rather than in a position of political authority.
Ques.3: What were the different ways in which culture was used to unite the Indian masses?
Ans.3: The different ways in which culture was used to unite the Indian masses during the freedom struggle were as follows:
a) The portrayal of Bharat Mata: The identity of the nation was symbolised as a woman. The first-ever image of Bharat Mata was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. The first famous image of Bharat Mata was painted by Abanindranath Tagore. The image was that of an aesthetic figure. She is composed, calm, spiritual and divine by nature.
b) History and folklore: The leaders of the national movement firmly believed that history was a powerful weapon to unite the masses as history was something that was common among all. The Indian folklore was revived across the country. Nationalists began travelling transversely throughout the country collecting regional folklore, stories, and songs to preserve them. Rabindranath Tagore in Bengal and Natesa Sastri in Madras widely collected folklore, ballads, and myths and published them to preserve the culture. These instilled a sense of pride about the past that motivated people to fight for independence.
c) Reinterpretation of history: Another method in which culture was used to mobilise the masses was by instilling a sense of pride for one’s past through reinterpretation of history. As the British saw Indian as primitive and backward, it was important for Indians to discover their past achievements.
d) Icons and symbols: As a way to unite people. During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag was designed. It had eight lotuses representing eight British provinces and a crescent-shaped moon depicting Hindu-Muslim unity. Later, in 1921, the Swaraj flag was designed by Mahatma Gandhi. The flags became a symbol of defiance of the British rule.
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