Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in The Rise of Nationalism in Europe. The chapter focuses on the nationalist movements that emerged all over the continent of Europe. The chapter begins by discussing the outcome of the French Revolution and how it inspired other European states to fight for independence. The following section discusses the spread of nationalism across Europe and the rise of liberalism and conservatism. The next section focuses on the age of revolutions, i.e., the years from 1830-1848. The chapter further deals with the unification process of the nation’s Germany and Italy. In the particular lesson the role of culture and allegory is also highlighted. The chapter ends with a discussion on the conflicts in the Balkan region.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short : 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: What changes were brought about by the French Revolution?
Ans.1: After the French Revolution, the monarchy was abolished in France. Owing to the political and constitutional changes, France became a sovereign nation, which was to be governed by a constitution.
Ques.2: Which areas in Europe were engaged in an industrial activity?
Ans.2: Western and Central Europe.
Ques.3: Describe the features of aristocracy in Europe.
Ans.3: The aristocracy was a minority in Europe. However, all the powers and privileges were vested in them and owned large estates. They were connected to each other owing to the family marriage ties and the language used by them for official purposes was mainly French.
Ques.4: How did the middle-class section emerge in society? What groups were included in the category?
Ans.4: The middle-class section emerged in the society as a response to increased industrialisation. It consisted of businessmen, professionals, and industrialists.
Ques.5: What was zolleverein?
Ans.5: Zolleverein was a customs body, formed in 1834 by Prussia’s initiative. It reduced the number of currencies and abolished tariff barriers.
Ques.6: From where did the word liberalism emerge?
Ans.6: The word ‘liberalism’ was derived from the Latin word ‘liber’, meaning free.
Ques.7: What was political liberalism?
Ans.7: Political liberalism meant equality before the law, and that a nation must be ruled by a representative government elected by the people. It meant that a constitution must govern a nation.
Ques.8: What was the conservative ideology?
Ans.8: Conservative ideology was the political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs like the Church, and preferred gradual development for quick change.
Ques.9: When was the Treaty of Vienna signed? Who were its signatories?
Ans.9: The Treaty of Vienna was signed in 1815 by Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria as the signatories.
Ques.10: Who hosted the Congress session in Vienna?
Ans.10: Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich
Ques.11: Who was described by Metternich as ‘the most dangerous for our social order’?
Ans.11: Giuseppe Mazzini
Ques.12: Name the secret societies set up by Giuseppe Mazzini.
Ans.12: The secret societies set up by Giuseppe Mazzini were:
- Young Italy in Marseilles
- Young Europe in Berne
Ques.13: When was the Treaty of Constantinople signed? What was its result?
Ans.13: The Treaty of Constantinople was signed in 1832, as a result of which Greece was declared as an independent nation.
Ques.14: Who were the Junkers?
Ans.14: The Junkers were the large landowners of Prussia.
Ques.15: Who was crowned as German Emperor in 1871?
Ans.15: Kaiser William I of Prussia
Ques.16: Who was the Chief Minister of Prussia?
Ans.16: Otto von Bismarck
Ques.17: Who ruled Sardinia-Piedmont?
Ans.17: King Victor Emmanuel II
Ques.18: Who were known as Slavs?
Ans.18: The inhabitants of the Balkan region were known as the Slavs.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer : 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: How did the people across the conquered areas in Europe receive Napoleon’s rule?
Ans.1: The reaction of the population of the conquered lands to Napoleon’s rule were mixed. In places like Switzerland and Holland, and other places like Warsaw and Mainz, people welcomed the French armies as they were believed to bring with them freedom and liberty. However, this did not remain for long. Eventually, Napoleon began imposing restrictions, imposed censorship and increased taxation which made people unhappy.
Ques.2: Describe the social organisation of Europe before the rise of nationalism.
Ans.2: The social organisation of Europe before the rise of nationalism was as follows:
- The aristocracy was the most powerful section and they owned most of the land.
- Peasants constituted the majority of the population.
- The land in the west was farmed by tenants and small owners, and serfs in Eastern and Central Europe cultivated large fields.
- Industries were prominent in the Western and parts of Central Europe. New towns came into existence and commercial classes started emerging.
Ques.3: Why was economic liberalism required?
Ans.3: Economic liberalism implied abolition of state-imposed restrictions, and freedom of markets.
- The economic liberalism became important as each state within a large confederation consisted of a currency and a different measurement system.
- This possessed a problem for the merchants as they were required to carry multiple currencies to pay taxes.
- Due to different measurement systems, it was often time-consuming to convert one currency into another.
- For example, an Elle was the measurement unit for cloth, and one Ellewas 54.7 cm cloth in Frankfurt and 65.6 cm in Nuremberg.
Thus, economic liberalism as required to frame a uniform economic system. And for this purpose, a customs union or zolleverein was set up in 1834.
Ques.4: The 1830s were years of great economic hardships in Europe. Discuss.
Ans.4: The 1830s were years of great economic hardships in Europe due to the following reasons:
a) Europe witnessed a population explosion in the first half of the nineteenth century.
b) However, employment opportunities could not keep pace with the growing population.
c) Owing to industrialisation, small producers faced competition from big industries.
d) In certain other areas where the landowning class still exercised control, small peasants were subject to excessive taxes and obligations.
e) The decade also witnessed bad harvest and rise in food prices.
Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer : 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Discuss the rise of Conservatism.
Ans.1: Conservatism refers to the political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development over quick change. The idea was laid on the foundation that the traditional institutions like the Church, social hierarchies, and monarchy must be preserved. Keeping in mind the concept of conservatism, Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria came together to sign the Treaty of Vienna in 1815. The meeting was headed by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The major target of the treaty was to reverse the changes brought by Napoleon and re-establish monarchy. The transformations brought under the Treaty of Vienna were:
a) Territories won by France under Napoleon were lost.
b) The Bourbon dynasty was re-established.
c) To prevent any further expansion of France, various independent states were set up around the boundaries of France. For example, the Netherlands (including Belgium) was set up to the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
d) Austria took over north Italy. Russia was given a part of Poland, and Prussia overtook a portion of Saxony.
The changes brought by the Treaty led to the restoration of the monarchy to the power and rise of Conservatism in Europe. However, the reforms brought by Napoleon like the abolition of feudalism, uniform laws and standardised system of measurement, and other changes brought by the Civil Code of 1804 were not completely forbidden as the European leaders considered them to be useful in the restoration of the monarchy and making it stronger.
The Conservative regime was extremely intolerant of the criticism and repressed any objections that rose against the monarchy. The press censorship increased and all kinds of acts inspiring freedom were banned. The freedom of speech and ideas of liberty were majorly affected.
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