Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Lifelines of National Economy covers all Extra Questions and Answers of various types i.e. from short questions to long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
The chapter begins with a description of the importance of transport in an economy and the different means of transport. The following section describes different means of transport, namely roadways, railways, waterways. And pipelines. The next section deals with major seaports of India. Airways and communication are discussed in the next section. India’s international trade is described and the chapter ends with a description of tourism as an emerging trade activity.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
Ques.1: Who implements the highway projects in India?
Ans.1: National Highway Authority of India
Ques.2: Which is NH1? Which cities does it connect?
Ans.2: The Sher-Shah Suri Marg is the National Highway 1. It connects Delhi with Amritsar.
Ques.3: How are roads classified based on the material of construction used?
Ans.3: Based on the material of construction used, the roads are classified as metalled and non-metalled roads.
Ques.4: When was the first train steamed off in India?
Ans.4: The first train of India was steamed off in 1853, from Mumbai to Thane.
Ques.5: Which is the cheapest mode of transportation in India?
Ques.6: When was air transport nationalised?
Ans.6: Air transport was nationalised in 1953.
Ques.7: Which six mail channels have been introduced in India?
Ans.7: The six mail channels introduced in India are Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel.
Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Why do roadways have an edge over railways?
Ans.1: The roadways have an edge over railways for the following reasons:
- The construction cost of roadways is lesser than the railways.
- Unlike railways, the roads can be built in the regions with undulating topography.
- Roads can be built on slopes and mountains.
- Road transport is economical for the transportation of people and goods over short distances.
- Road transportation provides door-to-door service, thereby reducing the loading and unloading cost.
- Roads serve as a link between other modes of transport and also facilitates the movement of goods and people.
Ques.2: Discuss the importance of railways in India.
Ans.2: The railways are an important means of transportation in India. They help in the movement of people and freight across regions. It helps in activities like business, pilgrimage, sightseeing, along with transportation of commodities. It is because of the railways that all the regions of the country are interconnected. Railways form the backbone of the economic life of India and also contributes to the development of agriculture and industry.
Ques.3: Write a short note on pipelines.
Ans.3: Pipeline transportation system is relatively new in India. Initially, this system was used to transport water, but now it is also used to transport crude oil, natural gas, and other petroleum products from the fields to industries, refineries and power plants. It is also used to transport solids in the form of a slurry. The advantage of pipelines is that they are easy to maintain with minimal costs after the initial cost of laying down the system.
Ques.4: Mention the three important networks of pipeline transportation in India.
Ans.4: The three important networks of pipeline transportation in India are:
- From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh), via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad. It has branches from Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbandh, Rajbandh to Maurigram and Guwahati to Siliguri
- From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab, via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodara, Gujarat) Chakshu and other places
- Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat connects Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh, via Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala and other places in Uttar Pradesh.
Ques.5: Mention the national waterways of India.
Ans.5: The national waterways of India are:
- The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)
- The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)
- The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km)
- Specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km)
- Specified stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km)
Ques.6: Why is water transport beneficial?
Ans.6: The water transportation is beneficial due to the following reasons:
- It is the cheapest mode of transportation.
- It is suitable to carry heavy and bulky goods.
- It is environment-friendly and fuel-efficient.
Ques.7: Write a short note on airways.
Ans.7: Airways is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transportation. Airways can help travel even across difficult terrains like mountains, deserts, forests and even over oceans. Access to different places has been eased by the airways. It is best suited for the north-eastern part of the country due to the presence of rugged topography. Air transport was nationalised in 1953.
Ques.8: How has tourism emerged as a trading activity?
Ans.8: Tourism is emerging as trading activity in India. The scenic beauty and peace of various picturesque places and rich culture and heritage of the country has always attracted tourists from different parts of the world. Tourism is highly beneficial for the national economy and also the local handicrafts industry. Different types of tourism like for heritage tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism are popular in India. The government is putting in efforts to develop the tourism industry.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 7 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: How are roads in India classified based on their capacity?
Ans.1: Based on their capacity, the roads in India have been classified as follows:
- Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways: These are the superhighways that link Delhi-Kolkata-Chennai-Mumbai and link Delhi with the six-lane highways. The North-South corridor links Srinagar with Kanyakumari and East-West corridor links Silchar and Porbandar. The major objective of superhighways is to reduce time and distance between megacities of India. These projects are implemented by National Highway Authorities of India.
- National Highways: They link extreme parts of the country. These are constructed and maintained by the Central Public Works Department. Major National Highways run in North-South and East-West directions. The Sher-Shah Suri Marg is the National Highway 1. It connects Delhi with Amritsar.
- State Highways: These roads link the different district headquarters with each other. These roads and laid and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD).
- District Roads: These roads connect the district headquarters with other places in the district. These are maintained by Zila Parishad.
- Other Roads: These include the rural roads which link rural areas and towns. These roads are maintained under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
- Border Roads: These roads are constructed and maintained by the Border Roads Organisation. The BRO was set up in 1960 to develop roads with strategic importance in north and north-eastern regions of the country. these roads have helped improve accessibility to the areas with difficult terrain and helped in their economic development.
Ques.2: How is the distribution pattern of Indian railways influenced by physiographic, economic and administrative factors?
Ans.2: India is a country with varied physiographic features and these features majorly influence the distribution of transport means in the country, majorly railways. The railways are the most convenient means of transportation in the northern plains of India as these plains are flat stretches of land. The region houses a highly dense population with a large number of agricultural fields, thereby supporting transportation across the region. Contrary to this, in the areas with rugged and hilly topography, railway lines are laid through tunnels, hills, and gaps. The Himalayan region is highly unfavourable for the construction of railway tracks. Similarly, the deserts of Rajasthan, forests of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand, railway lines cannot be constructed. The region of Sahyadris can only be crossed through gaps and passes. Recently, Konkan railway has been developed which has facilitated the movement of goods and people as it is one of the important economic regions of India.
Ques.3: Write a detailed note on major seaports of India.
Ans.3: India has a long coastline of 7,516.6 km, and this coastline houses 12 major and 200 minor/intermediate ports. Major ports include:
- Kandla Port: It is a tidal port developed in Kuchchh in Gujarat. It was the first port developed after independence. The major reason behind the development of this port was to ease the trade at Mumbai port, which had bulk trade due to the loss of Karachi port to Pakistan. It is also known as Deendayal Port. This port handles the trade of granary and industrial belt of India.
- Mumbai Port is a natural, spacious and well-sheltered harbour. To decongest the trade at this port, Jawaharlal Nehru Port was developed.
- Marmagao Port is the major port for iron ore export. It is in Goa. It accounts for 50% of India’s iron ore exports. New Mangalore Port in Karnataka is also responsible for handling the iron ore exports, particularly from Kudermukh mines.
- Kochi is another port in India, located at the entrance of a lagoon. It has a natural harbour. Another major port is Tuticorin Port in Tamil Nadu. It has a natural harbour and handles the trade of coastal India and countries of Sri Lanka, Maldives, etc.
- Chennai Port is the oldest port of India. Vishakhapatnam is another major port. It is the deepest landlocked port.
- Other major ports include Paradwip port in Odisha and Kolkata and Haldia Kolkata is a riverine port and Haldia was developed as a subsidiary port to Kolkata port.
Ques.4: Give a detailed account of communication.
Ans.4: Communication is a major component of human life. Both personal and mass communication like television, press, films, radio are an important means of communication. The postal network also serves as a communication source. The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. Six mail channels have been introduced in India to facilitate quick mail delivery. Telecom services are also popular in India, with India having one of the largest telecom networks. Nearly two-thirds of the villages in India have been covered with Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) facility. There is also a uniform and integrated STD system across the country to facilitate easy communication. Mass communication is another major form of communication. Television, radio, magazines, newspapers, films, books, etc. are forms of mass communication. National sources of mass communication as All India Radio and Doordarshan. They present various cultural and informational programmes, sports, and entertainment. Newspapers are another form of mass communication. In India, newspapers are published in over 100 languages. Movies are another major source of communication which are a reflection of our society and impact our society as well.
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