Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries covers all Extra Questions and Answers of various types i.e. from short questions to long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
The chapter begins with a discussion on the importance of manufacturing. The following section discusses the factors affecting the location of industries. The net section discusses in detail the different textile industries found in India. Sugar industry, iron and steel industry, chemical industry and fertilizer industry. Information technology is also described. The next section deals with the adverse effects of industries on the environment and the chapter ends with suggesting ways that can be used to conserve the environment.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
Ques.1: What is the full form of NMCC?
Ans.1: NMCC stands for National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council.
Ques.2: What are the agglomeration economies?
Ans.2: The industries that come together to take advantage of the facilities offered by the urban centres are the agglomeration economies.
Ques.3: Where were the industrial units concentrated in the pre-independence period and why?
Ans.3: In the pre-independence period, industries were majorly concentrated in the coastal areas to facilitate global trade.
Ques.4: When and where was the first textile mill set up in India?
Ans.4: The first textile mill in India was set up in Mumbai in 1854.
Ques.5: Which factors contribute to the localisation of the cotton textile industry?
Ans.5: The factors that contribute to the localisation of the cotton textile industry are the availability of raw cotton, market, transportation facilities like accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc.
Ques.6: Which are the spinning and weaving centres in India?
Ans.6: The spinning centres in India include Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. However, weaving is distributed almost all over the country to incorporate regional and traditional skills.
Ques.7: Which other industries is the cotton textile industry related to?
Ans.7: Cotton textile industry is related to other industries of chemicals and dyes, packaging materials and engineering works.
Ques.8: Mention the setbacks to the cotton textile in India.
Ans.8: The major setbacks to the cotton textile industry in India are erratic power supply, old machinery and technology, low output of labour and strong competition from the synthetic fibre industry.
Ques.9: India exports yarn to _______.
Ques.10: Name a few importers of Indian cotton goods.
Ans.10: A few importers of Indian cotton goods are U.S.A., U.K., Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and African countries.
Ques.11: When and where was the first jute mill set up in India?
Ans.11: The first jute mill of India was set up at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Discuss the importance of the manufacturing sector.
Ans.1: The manufacturing sector is important for the following reasons:
- Manufacturing sector helped modernise agriculture, the backbone of Indian economy.
- It has helped in employment generation across all the sectors of economic activities.
- It has helped in the eradication of unemployment and poverty. It has helped in bridging the gap between developed and backward regions of the country.
- Trade of manufactured goods across nations helps generate foreign exchange.
- The manufacturing sector has also brought prosperity to the country.
Ques.2: Agriculture and industry go hand in hand. Discuss.
Ans.2: The field of agriculture and industry are intertwined. In recent times, many agro-industries have emerged which have helped increase agricultural productivity. Also, many industries like the textile industry, tea and coffee industry depend on agriculture for their raw materials. The equipment required in agricultural activities like PVC pipes, irrigation pumps, fertilizers, machines, tools etc. are supplied by other industries. Thus, agriculture and industry go hand in hand.
Ques.3: How does industrialisation lead to urbanisation?
Ans.3: As the industries are set up, they attract workers from different places due to the work opportunities. As and when the industry grows, the number of workers increases. Eventually, these workers began settling around the industries, thereby leading to urbanisation of the area. Sometimes, industries are set up close to urban centres to ensure easy availability of labour. Thus, industrialisation and urbanisation are complementary to each other.
Ques.4: Differentiate between basic and consumer industries.
Ans.4: The industries whose produced goods are used as raw materials for other industries are known as basic industries. These industries provide the raw material for other industries. For example, iron and steel industry.
Consumer industries are the industries whose products are used by the consumers to directly to satisfy their needs. For example, the sugar industry, paper industry, automobile industry, etc.
Ques.5: Why is textile industry important?
Ans.5: The textile industry is of major significance in the country as it is the only industry that is completely self-reliant from the collection of raw material to the highest value-added products. It also contributes to the foreign exchange, employment generation and industrial production.
Ques.6: Write a brief note on:
a) Jute industry
b) Sugar industry
a) Jute industry: India is the largest producer of raw jute. The jute mills in India are majorly concentrated in the Hugli basin of West Bengal. The factors that contribute to this concentration of the jute industry include proximity of jute producing areas, the port facility for transportation, railway network, good network and roadways and waterways to transport raw material to the industries, abundant water for raw jute processing, cheap labour from West Bengal, and banking and insurance facilities from Kolkata. However, the industry is also faced with some challenges like competition from the synthetic fibre industry. Major markets include the USA, UK, Australia, Ghana, etc.
b) Sugar industry: India is the second-largest producer of sugar in the world. This industry is mostly set up near the fields as this is a weight-losing industry. The raw material is bulky and the sucrose is lost in transportation. The sugar mills are majorly concentrated in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. The challenges posed to this industry are the use of old and efficient technology, seasonal nature and transport delay.
Ques.7: Discuss the process of manufacturing steel.
Ans.7: First of all, the raw material is transported to the steel plant. In the steel plant, the iron ore is melted in the blast furnace and limestone is added as a fluxing material and slag is also removed. The heat energy for this process is provided by burning coal. This often material is then transformed into pig iron. In the next step, manganese, nickel, and chromium are added to purify the pig iron. In the last step, the purified steel is rolled, pressed, cast, and forged.
Ques.8: Write a short note on the following:
a) Aluminium smelting
b) Fertilizer industry
c) Cement industry
d) Automobile industry
e) Information technology and electronics industry
a) Aluminium smelting: It is the second-most important metallurgical industry in India. Bauxite is the most important raw material. Aluminium is a diverse metal and is light, corrosion-resistant, a good heat conductor and malleable. It can be made stronger when mixed with other metals. It is used to manufacture wires, utensils, and aircraft. The smelting plants are located in Odisha, West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The factors affecting the industrial location are regular electricity supply and assured raw material source.
b) Fertilizer industry: This industry majorly produces nitrogenous, phosphate and ammonium fertilizers. The industry received a major boost with the introduction of the Green Revolution. The states of Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala produce half of the total production.
c) Cement industry: Cement is used in building roads, bridges, factories, houses, dams, and almost every structure. The raw materials for the cement industry include limestone, silica and gypsum. Energy is supplied from coal and electric power and railways provide transportation. The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
d) Automobile industry: Automobile industry supplies vehicles which facilitate transportation. Vehicles like trucks, cars, motorcycles, scooters, buses, are manufactured in India. Liberalisation has helped in considerable growth of the industry. Major production centres include Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.
e) Information technology and electronics industry: These are emerging industries of India. Electronic industry includes television, telephone, radars, computers, etc. Bengaluru is the electronic capital of India. Another emerging industry id the IT industry.
Ques.9: Mention the uses of organic and inorganic chemicals.
Ans.9: The chemical industry is a fast-growing and diversifying industry. Inorganic chemicals are used to manufacture synthetic fibres, paints, glass, soap, detergents, paper, etc. Major inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, nitric acid, alkalies, and soda ash. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals. These are used to manufacture synthetic rubber, drugs, pharmaceuticals, plastics, etc. The most striking feature of the chemical industry is that it is its own biggest consumer. It is because the basic chemicals are further processed to produce other chemicals.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: How are industries classified on different bases?
Ans.1: The manufacturing industries are majorly classified based on the raw material used, their main role, capital investment, and based on ownership.
Based on the raw materials used, industries are classified as follows:
- Agro-based industries are the ones that derive their raw materials from agriculture. For example, cotton, jute, tea, and coffee industries.
- Mineral-based industries derive their raw materials from chemicals and minerals. These are chemical, Aluminium, petrochemicals industry.
Based on their role, they are divided into basic and consumer industries.
- The industries whose produced goods are used as raw materials for other industries are known as basic industries. These industries provide the raw material for other industries. For example, iron and steel industry.
- Consumer industries are the industries whose products are used by the consumers to directly to satisfy their needs. For example, the sugar industry, paper industry, automobile industry, etc.
Based on capital investment, the industries are small scale and large-scale industries. Just as their name suggests, the large-scale industries require large investments.
Based on ownership, the industries are classified as:
- Public sector industries are owned by the government. For example, BHEL and SAIL.
- Private industries are owned and operated by an individual or a group of individuals. For example, TISCO.
- Joint sector industries are owned by both public and private sector jointly. For example, Oil India Ltd.
- Cooperative sector industries are owned by either the producers or workers or both. The resources are pooled and profits and losses are shared proportionately.
Based on the weight of raw material and finished goods, industries are classified as heavy and light industries.
Ques.2: Explain in detail the iron and steel industry.
Ans.2: The iron and steel industry is the basic industry as it supplies raw material for all the other industries. Steel also has wide usage in a variety of industries like construction, defence, engineering, telephonic, etc. The raw materials required for the manufacturing of steel are iron ore, coking coal, and limestone. The majority of iron and steel industries are concentrated in the Chhotanagpur plateau region. This region is close to high-grade raw materials, cheap labour and market. However, the industry is faced with challenges like poor infrastructure, lower productivity of labour, high costs and limited availability of coking coal, and irregular supply of energy.
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