Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture covers all Extra Questions and Answers of various types i.e. from short questions to long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
The chapter begins with a discussion on different types of farming. The following section discusses the different cropping patterns found in India. Further, the chapter deals with major food and non-food crops cultivated in India. The chapter ends with a discussion on the impact of globalisation on agriculture in India.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
Ques.1: On which factors does primitive subsistence agriculture depend?
Ans.1: Primitive subsistence agriculture depends on monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown.
Ques.2: Which are the major cropping seasons in India?
Ans.2: The major cropping seasons in India are Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
Ques.3: Which are the main characteristics of commercial farming?
Ans.3: The main characteristics of commercial farming include:
- Use of modern technology
- Use of a high yielding variety of seeds
- Use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides for higher productivity.
Ques.4: What is plantation agriculture?
Ans.4: It is a type of commercial farming. In plantation agriculture, one single crop is grown over a large area for commercial purposes. In the process of cultivation, large machines are used and it is highly capital intensive.
Ques.5: Name the major food crops grown in India.
Ans.5: The major food crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, maize and pulses.
Ques.6: Name different types of paddy crop.
Ans.6: Aus, Aman and Boro
Ques.7: Name the important beverage crops in India.
Ans.7: The important beverage crops in India are tea and coffee.
Ques.8: Define sericulture.
Ans.8: The production of silk fibres by the rearing of silkworms is called sericulture.
Ques.9: Which are the major non-food crops grown in India?
Ans.9: The major non-food crops grown in India are rubber, cotton and jute.
Ques.10: What was the main focus of the First Five Year Plan?
Ans.10: Land reform
Ques.11: Why is the stagnation of agricultural sector problematic for the economy?
Ans.11: As agriculture and industry go hand in hand, any stagnation in agriculture would lead to problems in other sectors of the economy. It may cause unemployment or lower production levels.
Short Answer Type Question: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Why is agriculture an important economic activity?
Ans.1: Agriculture is an important economic activity for the following reasons:
- Over 60% of India’s population is directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture.
- It provides us with food grains and vegetables to fulfil our needs.
- Agriculture also supplies raw materials for many industries like the textile industry, the tea industry, paper industry, etc.
- It also helps us earn foreign exchange as agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices etc. are exported to other countries.
Ques.2: Write short notes on the following:
a) Rabi: This cropping season lasts from October to June. The crops are sown in October-December and harvested in April-June. Major rabi crops include wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. Major production of rabi crops takes place in states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh. These crops require precipitation during the winter months.
b) Kharif: These crops are sown with the onset of monsoon and harvested in September-October. Major Kharif crops include paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soya bean. Major states cultivating paddy include Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
c) Zaid: This is a short cropping season between rabi and Kharif seasons. Major crops include watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops.
Ques.3: Write short notes on the following:
- Wheat: Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in India. It is widely consumed in north and north-western India. Wheat is a Rabi crop. The geographical conditions required for the growth of wheat include 50-75 cm rainfall during the growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening. Major wheat-producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.
- Maize: It is a Kharif crop which is used as both food and fodder. It requires fertile alluvial soils and temperatures between 21⁰C to 21⁰ major maize producing states are Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
- Pulses: Pulses are a major source of protein in the vegetarian diet. India is the largest producer and consumer of the pulses. Major pulses include tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. As these are leguminous crops and cause nitrogen fixation, they are grown in rotation with other crops to help restore soil fertility. Major states producing pulses are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka.
Ques.4: Write short notes on:
- Horticultural crops
- Sugarcane: It is a tropical and subtropical crop. The geographical conditions required for the growth of sugarcane include hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21°C to 27°C and annual rainfall between 75cm and 100cm. it requires irrigation in areas with low rainfall. It can be cultivated in a variety of soils. India is the second-largest producer of sugarcane. Major sugarcane producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
- Oilseeds: major oilseeds cultivated in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum, soya bean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. Most of them are used in cooking purposes. India is the second-largest producer of groundnut. It is cultivated in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. It is a Kharif crop. Castor seeds are another major Kharif crop. Linseed and mustard are rabi crops.
- Coffee: Indian coffee is known worldwide for its quality. The variety grown in India is Arabica, which was introduced in India by Yemen. Major areas producing coffee include Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
- Horticultural crops: India produces both tropical and temperate crops. Mangoes are cultivated in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. oranges are cultivated in Nagpur and Cherrapunji, and bananas in Kerala, Mizoram Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Litchi and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya, grapes of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are famous worldwide.
Ques.5: Write short notes on:
- Rubber: It is an equatorial crop. The geographical conditions required for its growth include moist and humid climate with rainfall over 200 cm and temperature over 25⁰ major states producing rubber are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Meghalaya and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
- Cotton: Cotton is a Kharif crop. It is the major raw material for the cotton textile industry. It is cultivated in black soil. The geographical conditions required for the cultivation of cotton are high temperatures, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine. Major cotton-producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
- Jute: Jute requires well-drained fertile soils and high temperatures during the time of growth. It is also known as golden fibre. Major jute producing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya. It is used to produce gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, etc.
Ques.6: Mention the problems facing the Indian farmers.
Ans.6: The Indian farmers are faced with stiff competition from the international agricultural sector. Public investment in agriculture and subsidy on fertilizer has decreased leading to an increase in the cost of production. Adding to this, import duties were reduced causing an increase in imports. All these factors have led the farmers to withdraw their investment from the agricultural sector.
Class 10 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Question: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Give a detailed account of primitive subsistence agriculture.
Ans.1: Primitive subsistence agriculture is the oldest form of agriculture practised in the world. It is still practised in some parts of the world. The main purpose of this type of agriculture is subsistence. It is practised on small patches of land. The tools used for cultivation are also primitive, for example, digging sticks, hoe and dao. There is no additional labour required other than family labour. Primitive agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoon, natural soil fertility, and suitable environmental conditions. It is also known as slash and burn agriculture as in this, a small patch of forest land is cleared for cultivation. The ash resulting from the burnt trees serves are a fertile base to grow crops. Once the land loses its fertility, another patch of land is cleared and the same process is repeated. This method allows the land to rejuvenate its fertility naturally. It is known as jhumming in north-eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland, pamlou in Manipur, dipa in Bastar district of Chhattisgarh, and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands.
Ques.2: Differentiate between intensive subsistence farming and commercial farming.
Ques.3: Give a description of millets.
Ans.3: Millets are a group of crops which include jowar, bajra and ragi. These are coarse grains with very high nutritional value. Jowar is one of the most important crops. It is a rainfed crop and does not require irrigation in moist areas. It is cultivated in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Bajra is another important crop. It is grown on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Major states cultivating bajra are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Another millet grown in India is ragi. It is cultivated in dry regions with red, black, sandy, loamy, and shallow black soils. Ragi is cultivated in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
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