Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Gender Caste and Religion covers all Extra Questions and Answers of various types i.e. from short questions to long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
- This chapter we look at three kinds of social differences i.e. gender, religion and caste that can take the form of social divisions and inequalities.
- The chapter also in each of the case looks at the nature of the division in India and how it gets expressed in politics.
- The chapter provides with an in depth understanding on each of these aspects and take up real life examples to showcase the present day scenario.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
1. Gender division is a form of _______ seen everywhere but is rarely recognized in the study of politics.
Ans) Hierarchical social division
2. Gender division is not based on biology but ______ and ________.
Ans) Social expectations and stereotypes
3. ________ act pays equal wages for equal work to both men and women.
Ans) Equal Remuneration Act 1976
4. The problem due to religion becomes very acute when religion is expressed in politics in _________ and ________ terms.
Ans) Exclusive, partisan
5. Unlike gender and religion problems related to _______ is unique to India.
Ans) Caste division
6. The caste system was based on _________ of and ________ against outcaste groups.
Ans) Exclusion, discrimination
7. State the percentage of Hindus and Muslim population as according to the 2011 census.
Ans) Hindus: 79.8% Muslims: 14.2%
8. The Census of India mentions about two social groups listed in an official schedule they are known as _______ and ________.
Ans) Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes
9. The scheduled castes are often referred to as _______ and the scheduled tribes are often referred to as ___________.
Ans) Dalits, Adivasis
10. The ________ estimates the population of SCs and STs as 41% i.e. around 2/3rd of the total population.
Ans) National sample survey 2004-2005
11. A weakening of the position of landlords in the village along with the growth of literacy and other factors has led to the downfall of ________.
Ans) Caste hierarchy
12. _________ society is essentially a male-dominated one.
13. ______ % of reservation is made for women in parliament after march 10th women reservation bill.
14. Efforts of political leaders and social reformers like ________ and _________ who advocated and worked to establish a society in which caste inequalities are absent.
Ans) Gandhiji, BR Ambedkar
Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Type Questions: [2-4 marks]
1. What do you mean by the sexual division of labour?
Ans) Sexual Division of labour refers to a biased form of labour division where all household and domestic chores (unpaid work) is expected to be the domain and task of women while work related to physical labour and intelligence mainly done outside for which an individual is paid is considered as the domain of men.
2. Name two tasks that are performed exclusively by village women. How the scenario is different in the case of urban women?
Ans) Rural women often perform tasks like fetching water, firewood etc. from forests which are exclusive to the rural sector along with other basic household work like cooking, taking care of child etc. However, on the other hand, women in urban areas who are mainly considered as housewives or homemakers are expected to perform tasks like teaching their children, cooking for the family, taking care of elders and children and other household work. Owing to the developed areas urban women do not require to travel miles for fetching water and firewood. In urban areas with the development and progress women have now started doing work outside their households for which they are paid.
3. What do you mean by feminist movements?
Ans) Women’s role in political life is comparatively low as compared to that of men. Earlier only men were allowed to participate in public affairs and other job-related sectors. Gradually the problem of gender bias was raised in politics and several social and political protests were witnessed throughout the world. There were several agitations which demanded equal representation of women in the political field, these agitations also demanded equal educational, legal and career opportunities for women. Even more radical movements demanded equality in personality and life as well. These movements came to be known as feminist movements.
4. What is society’s definition of an ideal woman? Do you agree or disagree with the notion?
Ans) Society has created its stereotypical definition of ideal women for different aspects of life. For example, an ideal housemaker is expected to be a soft, subtle, submissive, person who knows how to make compromises and looks after every need of the family. They are expected to wake up the earliest and get to bed, at last, cook for the entire family, teach their children, take care of the elderly in the house, do rest of the household chores and be a personality who is loved by all. Again even in today’s world when women are breaking the old norms and have started to work outside their households they are still expected to be the only one responsible for all the household chores, along with taking care of the children.
However, the above notion that society has regarding women seems to be inappropriate as they have every right to choose the life of their choice, to rest and to work outside their households without any extra burden. Household chores should be shared equally among all members of the house and she should be given the freedom of being herself rather than being forced to fit into the definitions and expectations of the society.
5. What problems are faced in the political field by women especially in India? How can this problem be solved?
Ans) Women since decades have significantly low representation rates in case of politics. In India proportion of women in the legislature has been very low ever since. For example, the percentage of women in Lok Sabha has touched 14.26% for the first time in 2019. Their total share in the state assemblies is less than 5%. The cabinet of ministers is mostly all men even when the chief minister or prime minister is a woman. These problems can be solved by providing women with an equal representation via reserving some seats particularly for them in the field of politics. The Panchayati raj system already has reserved 1/3rd of its seats for women and a similar demand has been made for Lok Sabha which bill is pending for than a decade. If bills like these are approved faster then, the condition can be changed significantly.
6. Religious differences are often expressed in the field of politics. Justify the following statement.
Ans) The institute of religion has always played a very crucial role in the field of politics. However, when politics start revolving completely around religion then it takes the shape of communalism which creates the problem of religious differences as the ruling party starts favouring one religion over the other leading to communal riots, and discrimination against the other religion. A desire for dominance one’s religion widens the differences among different religion as both parties involved in a conflict of proving one’s religion as the best. As a result of all these, the social, economic and political development lags and parties involve themselves just with religious differences and conflicts.
7. What do you mean by communal politics?
Ans) Communal politics is established on the idea that religion is the sole basis of forming a community. It relies on the fact that followers of a particular religion fit in only in the particular community. Their interests, ideas and opinions are also the same. It also believes that people belonging to different religions cannot be a part of the same community and as a result leads to discrimination based on politics.
8. What is meant by hereditary occupational division?
Ans) Unlike other nation the caste identity is unique to India where are mainly divided into four castes based on their occupation and hence it is at times also known as clear division of labour. Hereditary occupational division refers to different jobs done by people mainly depending on their family backgrounds. When generation after generation one particular task is undertaken as an occupation then it becomes the particular caste identity of the family and they fall within the cadre of hereditary occupational division. For example, Brahmins hold the highest position in this hierarchy followed by Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Sudras.
9. What do you mean by the terms urbanization and occupational mobility?
Ans) When people in huge groups who live in rural places migrate to the cities and urban sectors owing to various reasons then it is known as urbanization.
When a particular generation breaks the shackles of heredity occupation and willingly take up some other profession apart from the ones practised by their ancestors then it can be referred to as occupation mobility.
10. What is apartheid?
Ans) It can be defined as a system of racial discrimination predominantly practised in South Africa where the dark skin coloured people were termed as blacks and were victimized against in every aspect by the fair-skinned or whites. The blacks were segregated to a level where they did not receive a quality education or were not allowed to work in developed sectors leading to poor socio-economic status.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Type Questions: [4-6 marks]
1. State any three points which prove that women still lag behind men in different aspects.
Ans) India ever since history is a male-dominated society and as a result, women lag in almost all the fields owing to the presence of patriarchy.
- Infanticides and Female feticides: Even before the birth of a girl they are killed inside their mother’s womb as they are considered to be a burden on the family. This act also leads to an unfavourable sex ratio.
- Lack of equal opportunities: Even today, in several rural areas, girls are not provided with equal opportunities as boys. They are given less quantity of food and also educational opportunities are not provided.
- Social stigmas: Several social stigmas take away the opportunity of freely being able to live one’s life. In many societies even today widow remarriage is considered to be a sin, divorce of women is not considered as normal and women are blamed for every situation.
2. How secularism helps in solving the problem of communalism.
- Way back in 1947 when India got its Independence, the leaders of our nation decided that India would be a secular nation even after maintaining its unique identity of the most diverse nation of the world.
- When politics starts revolving solely around religion then it is referred to as communism and it is a negative feature of politics based on it.
- However, secularism has thoroughly helped to deal with this problem in India as it did not lead the country to fall prey to the communalism by ensuring equality of status of all religions.
- According, to secularism policies there is no official religion of the country and people can freely profess, practice and propagate their religion.
- Also, secularism allows the state to intervene in certain religious matters as the freedom of religion is subjected to reasonable restrictions and in case of any chaotic situation, the state intervenes and takes control.
3. What contribution does the caste system make in case of politics? Are they positive or negative?
Ans) Caste System has both positive and negative effects on politics some of which are as follows:
- Firstly, the Caste system plays a crucial role in bringing out the lower castes forward in election purposes as seats are reserved for candidates belonging to lower, and socio-economically backward classes.
- Caste system helps to identify the needs of people from different caste backgrounds as people identify more with a candidate belonging to their caste and who in turn represent the needs of this set of people.
- However, the caste system is also one of the main ways of discriminating amongst political candidates leading to differential perceptions and opinions in the minds of voters.
- Often muscle power, money clubbed with a higher caste identity can provide a candidate with a better opportunity than one with the opposites.
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