Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Federalism covers all Extra Questions and Answers of various types i.e. from short questions to long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
- This chapter mainly talks about the vertical division of power i.e. the hierarchy where the center is at the top followed by the state and finally the districts or panchayats.
- The chapter focuses to make the students understand the general concept of federalism and also puts the emphasis on the third tier of federalism which is a new addition to the structure.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
1) Which country’s constitution’s key feature was to reduce the power of the central government and give powers to the regional government?
2) Belgium shifted from a unitary to a _______ form of government after changes of 1993.
3) Name one country which has a unitary form of government.
Ans) Sri Lanka
4) ________ is a system of government where power is divided between a central authority and various constituent units of the country.
5) _______ out of 193 countries in the world have federal political systems.
6) Under ______ system either there is only one level of government or the subunits are subordinated to the central government.
7) Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its jurisdiction in specific matters of _______, _________ and _______.
Ans) Legislation, administration, taxation
8) An ideal federal system has both aspects of ______ and ________.
Ans) Mutual trust, agreement to live together
9) What are the two different types of a federation?
Ans) Coming together and Holding together federations
10) ________ is the area over which someone has legal authority.
11) After Independence and several princely states becoming a part of the country, the constitution declared India as a _______.
Ans) Union of states
12) Name any three subjects of national importance which are included in the union list.
Ans) Defence, Foreign Affairs, Banking
13) Name three subjects of local importance and are included in the state list.
Ans) Commerce, Agriculture, Irrigation
14) Powers of subjects like computer software which came up after the constitution was made reside with the union government subjects known as ________.
Ans) Residuary subjects
15) Name any states of India which enjoy special powers because of their particular social and historical circumstances.
Ans) Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh
16) Which article provides special powers to states like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland etc. because of their particular social and historical circumstances.
Ans) Article 371
17) Name two union territories of India.
Ans) Chandigarh, Lakshadweep
18) _______ plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures.
19) __________ in Rajasthan is the place where India conducted its nuclear tests.
20) Name two states which were created based on culture, ethnicity, or geography and not on a linguistic basis.
Ans) Nagaland, Jharkhand
21) Besides Hindi, there are _______ languages recognized as scheduled languages by our constitution.
22) Name the language which is spoken the most after Hindi.
23) All the panchayat samities and mandals in a district together constitute the ________.
Ans) Zilla Parishad
24) The municipal chairperson is the head of the ________. While in a municipal corporation such an officer is known as ________.
Ans) Municipality, Mayor
25) Who administers a district and what is the other name he is known as?
Ans) Collector, District magistrate
26) Which state of India has its constitution?
Ans) Jammu Kashmir
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Type Questions: [2-4 marks]
1) What is federalism and what are the two levels of government under it?
Ans) Federalism can be defined as an arrangement of government in which the power is distributed between the central authority and various constituent units of the country. It has usually two levels of government both of which enjoy individual power. The two governments are:
- Firstly, the administration for the entire country that is responsible for a few subjects of common national interest.
- The next is the government at the level of province or state that is responsible for the daily administration of the state matters.
2) What are the two kinds of roots through which federation are formed?
Ans) There are mainly two kinds of roots through which federations are formed. They are as follows:
- The first root encompasses of autonomous states coming together on their own to form a larger unit so that by heaving sovereignty and recollecting identity they can upsurge their security. This kind of coming together federation is seen in countries like the USA, Switzerland and Australia.
- The second route is where a country chooses to distribute its power between the constituent states and the national government. India, Spain, Belgium are a few examples of this type of federation.
3) What happens in a holding together and a joining together federation?
India comes under which type of federation and why? (CBSE 2014)
Ans) In case of a coming together federation, all constituent states customarily have equal power and are strong concerning the federal government.
In a joining together federation the central government inclines to be more powerful concerning the states i.e. often different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers and some units are granted special powers.
4) What is the three different types of federalism practised in India?
Ans) Originally our constitution provided only a two-tier system which consisted of the Central or Union government and state governments. However, later a third tier was added consisting of the municipalities and the panchayats. All these three tires enjoy separate jurisdiction and a clear distribution of power.
5) Describe the three-fold distribution of legislative power.
Describe the three forms of power-sharing among different organs of government in India. (CBSE 2014)
Ans) The three-fold distribution of legislative power between the union government and the state government as provided by the constitution contains three lists mentioned as follows:
Union list: This list has a power related to subjects of national importance like that of finance, defence etc. and the power of decision-related to this subjects lies with the central government only as a unified policy system is required for all these subjects.
State list: This list provides powers related to subjects that are of local importance like agriculture, trade commerce etc. and these powers lies with the state government.
Concurrent list: This list provides powers related to subjects like marriage, forests etc. and decisions related to these subjects can be taken by both central and state government.
6) What do you mean by a coalition government?
Ans) When none of the leading political parties can secure their ruling position alone then two or more than two parties come together to form a political alliance which can be termed as a coalition. For example, our current government led by BJP is also a coalition of the head party along with 45 other parties.
7) State two reasons which enable us to call India a federal nation.
Ans) India is a federal nation and we can call it so because of the following reasons:
- Firstly, the Indian constitution had provided for a two-tier system of the government which was later upgraded to three tiers after addition of panchayats and municipalities.
- Secondly, the constitution has also divided the powers almost uniformly and distributed it in the form of three lists the union, the state and the concurrent list.
8) What do you mean by decentralization? What was the condition before the 1992 constitutional amendment?
Ans) When a certain set of powers are taken away from the central and state governments and are provided to the local government then this process of giving and take is known as decentralization.
Before the constitutional amendment of 1992 provisions for conducting regular timely elections were not present. Also, the local bodies did not possess any individual powers and were dependent on state and central government for complete aid.
9) Give a hierarchical representation of the rural or local self-government in India.
10) What are the dual objectives of a federal government?
Ans) The federal system of government has dual objectives. They are as follows:
- To safeguard and promote the unity of the country.
- To accommodate regional diversity.
11) What other factors besides politics keep the federations united? (CBSE 2015)
Ans) Apart from politics, there are other factors which help in keeping the federations united. Few of them are culture, ideology and history. Culture of trust, cooperation, mutual respect and restraint has also facilitated in the even functioning of nations. Apart from these, language also plays a very crucial role in keeping federation united especially if a language policy like that of India is adopted.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Type Questions: [4-6 marks]
1) Mention any 5 key features of the federal form of government.
Ans) The following are the features of a federal government.
- In a federal government, there are two or more levels of government among whom powers are distributed evenly.
- Different tiers govern the same set of citizens however they have their jurisdictions the authority of which is guaranteed by the constitution in matters of taxation, administration and legislation.
- The fundamental provisions cannot be changed or nurtured with based on the will of anyone specific tier of government and always has to be a joint consent.
- Courts are given the highest power in case of disputes and their decision is considered to be final in case of any disputes among the different tiers of government.
- Revenue and financial sources are specified for each tier to ensure a system of financial autonomy.
2) State 4 important feature of the language policy of India.
Ans) In 1947 the boundaries of different states of our country were remarked on a linguistic basis. India’s language policy has certain features which are mentioned below:
- Our constitution has not denoted any language as the national language of our nation.
- Hindi along with English has been adopted as official languages to fulfil the demand of the south Indian states.
- Hindi along with 21 other languages has been recognized as scheduled languages to maintain the separate identity and give equal importance to other languages apart from the most spoken language.
- States are given the freedom of choosing their official language.
3) State 4 steps that were taken to make the third tier of democracy stronger in the year 1992.
Why is decentralization favoured in a democracy? Identify any two reasons. (CBSE 2014)
Which four provisions of the constitutional amendment of 1992 strengthened the third tier of democracy in India? Explain. (CBSE 2015, 2013, 2012)
Ans) Before the 1992 constitutional amendment, the third tier i.e. the local governments consisting of panchayats and municipalities did not have their powers however in 1992 after the decentralization took place the following steps were taken to improve their status.
- Firstly, the process of election was regularized and mandatory elections were to be held as per the instructions.
- Certain seats were reserved for socially and economically backward classes like the scheduled tribes and scheduled castes to make the process fairer, along with mandatory one-third reservation for women.
- An independent institution was formed in each state which was known as the state election commission.
- Certain powers along with some revenue amount for support was made mandatory for every state government to give to their local governments.
4) Explain the structure of the new Panchayati Raj institutions
- Rural local government or democratic decentralization is known as Panchayati raj system.
- The gram panchayat is mandatorily set up in every village or at least in every group of villages.
- Sarpanch the head of the gram panchayat is elected directly by every adult member of the village who is a part of the gram sabha.
- The local structure goes up to the district level which consists of a group of Gram Panchayats who in turn form a Panchayat Samiti or a Mandal who in turn groups together and constitutes the Zilla Parishad which consists of the elected members.
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