Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Power Sharing covers all Extra Questions and Answers of various types i.e. from short questions to long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
- This is the introductory chapter of the class 10 book which focuses on the importance of power sharing among the different organs of the government.
- The chapter highlights stories of power sharing of two different nations i.e. Sri Lanka and Belgium and the pro and cons of their type of structure.
- It also talks about the various forms of power sharing possible and gives an overview of the concept.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 10 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
1) Belgium is a small country in Europe which shares its boundaries with _______, _______, _______ and ________.
Ans) France, Netherlands, Germany, Luxemburg
2) Which country presented a special problem since the Dutch-speaking people of the country were the majority in number in the rest parts of the nation however minority in the capital.
3) ________ is an island nation just a few kilometres off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu.
Ans) Sri Lanka
4) State the percentage of Sinhala and Tamil Speakers in Sri Lanka.
Ans) Sinhala: 74% and Tamil: 18%
5) Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in the year ______.
6) _______ reason stresses that power-sharing will bring out better outcomes while ______ reasons emphasize the very act of power-sharing.
Ans) Prudential, Moral
7) In modern democracies, power is shared among different organs of the government and they are the _______, ______ and ________.
Ans) Executive, Legislature, Judiciary
8) A general government for the entire country is known as ______.
Ans) Federal Government
9) Division of power having higher and lower levels of governments is known as _________.
Ans) Vertical Division of Power
10) Name two of Russia’s important political parties.
Ans) The union of Right Forces, The Liberal Yabloko Movement
11) _______ measure was adopted by the democratically elected government to establish Sinhala supremacy in Sri Lanka.
12) Name the state religion of Sri Lanka.
13) _______ percentage of people speak the German language in Belgium.
Ans) Only 1%
14) Sinhala was recognized as the only official language of Sri Lanka after an act passed in the year _________.
15) _________ can be considered as a good example of power-sharing among different social groups in Belgium.
Ans) Community Government
16) System of ________ has been adopted in India to give representation to socially and economically backward classes in government institutions.
Ans) Reserved Constituencies
Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Type Questions: [2-4 marks]
1) Give two different sets of reasons in favour of power-sharing.
How far do you agree with the statement that power-sharing is keeping with the spirit of democracy? (CBSE 2012)
Ans) Power-sharing can be described as the most important feature of democracy because of the following reasons:
- The feature of power-sharing helps in minimizing the likelihoods of clashes among various political and social groups and also protects the government from turning into an authoritarian ruler.
- In a democracy, people must get to know about their queries regarding the steps taken by the government and when there is a system of power-sharing then the government becomes more responsible as there are other organs of powers who can otherwise charge the government for not being responsible and answering the queries of the people.
2) What is the horizontal distribution of power?
What is known as the system of Checks and Balances? (CBSE 2015)
Ans) Horizontal distribution of power refers to the sharing of powers among the three different organs of the government i.e. the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. It is called so because it allows different organs of government to be placed at the same level to exercise a different set of powers. This type of separation ensures a system of checks and balances and restricts accumulation of powers to one particular organ and as a result, helps to keep the notion of democracy alive.
3) What is meant by Majoritarianism?
Sri Lanka adopted many majoritarian rules to enhance the importance of the Sinhala community. What do you mean by the term Majoritarianism?
Ans) Majoritarianism can be defined as a belief where the majority community is given more importance and respect and is also allowed to rule the country according to their wishes and fancies disregarding the needs and desires of the minority community. Example: Sri Lanka.
4) What do you mean by the term Ethnic? Give two examples.
Ans) When a social separation is based on communal beliefs and people belonging to this particular group have faith in each other’s common ancestries owing to some physical or cultural similarities who might or might not have the same religion or nationality can be termed as an ethnic group. For example, Indo Aryans and Dravidians of India.
5) Mention any two different forms of power-sharing that we come across in Democracies.
Ans) Power sharing is one of the most important features of democracy which helps to maintain a system of checks and balances. There are many ways in which power is shared in a democracy, some of which are mentioned below:
- Horizontal Distribution of Power: When power is shared among the three different organs of government i.e. the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
- Vertical Division of power: The vertical division of power includes the different higher and lower levels of government like central government, state government, village panchayats etc.
6) To establish the supremacy of the Sinhala community the government of Sri Lanka took many steps. State any three of them.
Ans) To establish the supremacy of the Sinhala community, the government of Sri Lanka took many majoritarian measures. A few of them are as follows:
- In the year 1956, an act was passed which recognized Sinhala as the only official language.
- The government followed preferential policies for university admissions and government jobs where applicants from the Sinhala community were prioritized.
- The new constitution adopted stipulated that the state was supposed to protect and foster the religion Buddhism.
7) Mention three measures that Belgium took to solve the existing regional and cultural diversities of the nation.
How did Belgium successfully kept its culturally diverse population united?
Ans) To address the existing regional and cultural differences, the Belgian government took many steps. Some of them are as follows:
- An equal number of ministers from both communities of Dutch and French-speaking were given responsibility so that both the groups get equal representation.
- Setting up of community government addressing issues related to culture, education and languages. It included members of all the three communities i.e. Dutch, French and German-speaking.
- Provisions of a fair share of power for both central and state government and equal representation of power in the capital city of Brussels were also among the measures that ensured equality of opportunities for all the communities.
8) What were the reasons behind the strained relationship between the Tamil and the Sinhala communities in Sri Lanka?
- The ethnic composition of Sri Lanka consists of 74% Sinhala community and 14% Tamil community, people constituting a clear case of majority of one community over the other. On the other hand, the government of Sri Lanka adopted a few majoritarian measures to establish the supremacy of the Sinhala community over the Tamils leaving them neglected and dissatisfied.
- Discrimination based on religion and culture, biased and preferential policy measures practised in universities and government institutions, adopting a particular official language all made the Tamils feel inferior and ignored.
- Even after repeated protests, narrating their demand for equality, they were not provided with justice as a result of which a civil war between the two communities took place.
All these resulted in the strained relationship of the Tamil community and the Sinhala community.
Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Type Questions: [4-6 marks]
1. Explain the ethnic compositions of the following nations:
b) Sri Lanka
- BELGIUM: Belgium is a small country in Europe and shares its borders with France, Netherlands, Germany, and Luxemburg.
- The ethnic composition of this country is very complex owing to the presence of many different communities.
- Of the country’s total population, 59% lives in the Flemish region and speaks the Dutch language. Another 40% of people live in Wallonia region and speak French. Remaining 1% of the Belgians speaks German.
- In the capital city of Brussels, 80% of people speak French while 20% speaks Dutch.
- SRI LANKA: Sri Lanka is also a country with a diverse population. On the one hand, 74% of the population is Sinhala speaking on the other hand 14% are Tamil speaking.
- Among Tamils, there are two subgroups: The Sri Lankan Tamils and the Indian Tamils. Most of the Sinhala speaking community are Buddhists while most of the Tamils are Hindus are Muslims.
- There are a total of 7% Christians in the country from both Tamils and Sinhala Communities.
2) Differentiate between the Belgian and The Sri Lankan democracies.
Compare the different ways in which the Belgians and the Sri Lankans have dealt with the problem of cultural diversity. (CBSE 2012)
Ans) Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are among countries with a mixed and complex ethnic composition. However, the governments of both countries dealt very differently with the issue and while on one hand, one could successfully maintain peace among its citizens the other’s decisions resulted in a civil war. Below are a few points of differences between the two government approaches:
- Belgium adopted a policy of accommodation of all social and economic divisions while the Sri Lankan government adopted a set of majoritarian policies.
- Belgium provided equal representation to both the ethnic communities of Dutch and French while Sri Lanka decided to adopt features for the majority only.
- Belgium provided equal power status to all its communities while Sri Lanka adopted the language of the majority as the official language.
- Belgium set up a third government known as the community government to address issues related to culture language and education while on the other hand, Sri Lankan government decided to safeguard and protect the religion of the majority ignoring the demands of the minority.
3) What were the demands and struggles of the Sri Lankan people?
Explain any three consequences of the majoritarian policies adopted by the Sri Lankan government. (CBSE 2013)
Analyze how Majoritarianism has increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils? (CBSE 2014, CBSE 2015)
Ans) In Sri Lanka, the Tamil speaking community is the minority with only 14% of the total population speaking the language. The Sri Lankan Tamils had the following demands which they wanted their government to fulfil:
- They wanted equality of opportunities for all and ban on the preference system that was carried out during university admissions or government job selection where Sinhala speaking community was given preference over Tamil speaking candidates.
- Tamils wanted recognition of their mother tongue Tamil and demanded equal status and respect for their language as was given to the Sinhala language.
- They also wanted their religion to be equally recognized by the government as was done in case of Buddhism which was the main religion of the Sinhala community.
- Tamils with the help of a few political parties in the year 1980 demanded a separate independent Tamil state.
- As a result of the clash between the two communities, a civil war took place which resulted in massive economic, social and political losses.
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