CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Political Science Class 12 NCERT Syllabus

Syllabus of Political Science class XII

Course III: Politics in India Since Independence
Course IV: Contemporary World Politics

Course III: Politics in India Since Independence

1. Era of One-Party Dominance :

First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.




2. Nation-Building and Its Problems :

Nehru’s approach to nation-building: Legacy of partition: challenge of ‘refugee’ resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and reorganisation of states; Political conflicts over language.

3. Politics of Planned Development:

Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.

4. India’s External Relations :

Nehru’s foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India’s nuclear programme and shifting alliances in world politics.

5. Challenge to and Restoration of Congress System:

Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress’ victory in 1971 elections, politics of ‘garibi hatao’.

6. Crisis of the Constitutional Order:

Search for ‘committed’ bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extraconstitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organisations.

7. Regional Aspirations and Conflicts:

Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti-Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.

8. Rise of New Social Movements:

Farmers’ movements, Women’s movement, Environment and Development-affected people’s movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.




9. Democratic Upsurge and Coalition Politics:

Participatory upsurge in 1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. UF and NDA governments. Elections 2004 and UPA government.

10. Recent Issues and Challenges:

Challenge of and responses to globalization: new economic policy and its opposition. Rise of OBCs in North Indian politics. Dalit politics in electoral and nonelectoral arena. Challenge of communalism: Ayodhya dispute, Gujarat riots.

Course IV: Contemporary World Politics

1. Cold War Era in World Politics :

Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.

2. Disintegration of the ‘Second World’ and the Collapse of Bipolarity :

New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and, Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India’s relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.

3. US Dominance in World Politics :

Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India’s renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.

4. Alternative Centres of Economic and Political Power :

Rise of China as an economic power in post- Mao era, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India’s changing relations with China.

5. South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era :

Democratisation and its reversals in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India’s relations with its neighbours.

6. International Organisations in a Unipolar World :

Restructuring and the future of the UN. India’s position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?




7. Security in Contemporary World :

Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.

8. Environment and Natural Resources in Global Politics :

Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India’s stand in global environmental debates.

9. Globalisation and Its Critics :

Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggles against it.

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