CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Geography Class 12 NCERT Syllabus

Syllabus of Geography class XII

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography
B. India: People and Economy

A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit I: Human Geography: Nature and Scope 

Unit II: People 

• Population of the world – distribution, density and growth;
• Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
• Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;
• Human development – concept; selected indicators, international comparisons.




Unit III: Human Activities 
• Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agriculture and allied activities – some examples from selected countries;
• Secondary activities – concept; manufacturing: agro-processing, household, small scale, largescale; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries;
• Tertiary activities – concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities – some examples from selected countries;
• Quaternary activities – concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities – some examples from selected countries.

Unit IV: Transport, Communication and Trade 

• Land transport – roads, railways – rail network; trans-continental railways;
• Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes;
• Air transport – Intercontinental air routes;
• Oil and gas pipelines;
• Satellite communication and cyber space;
• International trade – Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

Unit V: Human Settlements 

• Settlement types – rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.




B. India: People and Economy

Unit I: People 

• Population – distribution, density and growth; composition of population: linguistic and religious; rural-urban population change through time – regional variations; occupation;

• Migration: international, national – causes and consequences;
• Human development – selected indicators and regional patterns;
• Population, environment and development.

Unit II: Human Settlements 

• Rural settlements – types and distribution;
• Urban settlements – types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit III: Resources and Development 

• Land resources – general land use; agricultural land use – major crops; agricultural development and problems, common property resources;
• Water resources – availability and utilization – irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods – rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced) ;

• Mineral and energy resources – metallic and non-metallic minerals and their distribution; conventional and non-conventional energy sources;
• Industries – types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries – iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location;
• Planning in India – target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).

Unit IV: Transport, Communication and International Trade 

• Transport and communication — roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines; national electric grids; communication networkings – radio, television, satellite and internet;

• International trade — changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.

Unit V: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems
(One case study to be introduced for each topic)

• Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal;
• Urbanisation-rural-urban migration; problem of slums;
• Land Degradation.

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