CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Geography Class 11 NCERT Syllabus

Syllabus of Geography class XI

A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography 

Unit I: Geography as a Discipline

• Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes;
• Branches of geography; importance of physical geography

Unit II: The Earth

• Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics; Earthquakes and volcanoes;

Unit III: Landforms 

• Rocks and minerals – major types of rocks and their characteristics;
• Landforms and their evolution
• Geomorphic processes – weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soils – formation

Unit IV: Climate

• Atmosphere – compositions and structure; elements of weather and climate;
• Insolation – angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth – heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation, advection); temperature – factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature – horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature;
• Pressure – pressure belts; winds – planetary seasonal and local, air masses and fronts; tropical and extra tropical cyclones;
• Precipitation – evaporation; condensation – dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall – types and world distribution;
• World climates – classification (Koeppen), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.

Unit V: Water (Oceans)

• Hydrological Cycle;
• Oceans — submarine relief; distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water–waves, tides and currents.

Unit VI: Life on the Earth 
• Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystems, bio-geo chemical cycle, and ecological balance.

B. India – Physical Environment 

Unit I: Introduction 

• Location – space relations and India’s place in the world.


Unit II: Physiography 

• Structure and Relief;
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds: the Himalayan and the Peninsular ;
• Physiographic divisions.

Unit III: Climate, Vegetation and Soil

• Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure , winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability – spatial and temporal; climatic types;
• Natural vegetation – forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
• Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.

Unit IV: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
(One case study to be introduced for each topic)

• Floods and droughts
• Earthquakes and Tsunami
• Cyclones
• Landslides

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