Syllabus of Geography class XI
A. Fundamentals of Physical Geography
Unit I: Geography as a Discipline
• Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes;
• Branches of geography; importance of physical geography
Unit II: The Earth
• Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth; Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics; Earthquakes and volcanoes;
Unit III: Landforms
• Rocks and minerals – major types of rocks and their characteristics;
• Landforms and their evolution
• Geomorphic processes – weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soils – formation
Unit IV: Climate
• Atmosphere – compositions and structure; elements of weather and climate;
• Insolation – angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth – heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation, advection); temperature – factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature – horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature;
• Pressure – pressure belts; winds – planetary seasonal and local, air masses and fronts; tropical and extra tropical cyclones;
• Precipitation – evaporation; condensation – dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud; rainfall – types and world distribution;
• World climates – classification (Koeppen), greenhouse effect, global warming and climatic changes.
Unit V: Water (Oceans)
• Hydrological Cycle;
• Oceans — submarine relief; distribution of temperature and salinity; movements of ocean water–waves, tides and currents.
Unit VI: Life on the Earth
• Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystems, bio-geo chemical cycle, and ecological balance.
B. India – Physical Environment
Unit I: Introduction
• Location – space relations and India’s place in the world.
Unit II: Physiography
• Structure and Relief;
• Drainage systems: concept of water sheds: the Himalayan and the Peninsular ;
• Physiographic divisions.
Unit III: Climate, Vegetation and Soil
• Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure , winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability – spatial and temporal; climatic types;
• Natural vegetation – forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves;
• Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.
Unit IV: Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
(One case study to be introduced for each topic)
• Floods and droughts
• Earthquakes and Tsunami