Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in Pastoralists in the Modern World. The chapter begins with an introduction to the pastoral and nomad communities living across various geographical regions. The following chapter discusses how the coming of colonial powers changed the lives of these communities. The next section discusses pastoralism in Africa and how they lead their lives.
Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Answer Questions: 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: Who were nomads?
Ans.1: Nomads are groups who move from one place to another in search of livelihood, and pastures for their livestock.
Ques.2: Name a few nomadic communities living in the mountains in India
Ans.2: A few nomadic communities living in mountainous regions of India are:
- Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir
- Gaddis of Himachal Pradesh
- Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaon
- Bhotiyas, Sherpas, and Kinnauris
Ques.3: Define kafila.
Ans.3: The families of Gujjar and Bakarwals used to come together to move back to their summer grounds. These groups were called kafila.
Ques.4: The movement of mountain pastoralists is depended on ______.
Ans.4: The presence of cold season and snow
Ques.5: The movement of plateau pastoralists is depended on _______.
Ans.5: Alteration of monsoon and dry season
Ques.6: Name some communities of pastoralists in Africa.
Ans.6: Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana
Ques.7: What kinds of activities do the tribes of Africa undertake to earn their livelihood?
Ans.7: To earn their livelihood, the tribes of Africa undertake various activities. They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys and sell their milk, meat, animal skin and wool. Some are engaged in trade and transport, and some combine pastoral activity with that of agriculture to earn their livelihoods.
Ques.8: Name the game reserves that were formed on the Maasai lands.
Ans.8: The Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania.
Ques.9: The Maasai were divided into _________ and ________.
Ans.9: Elders and Warriors
Ques.10: What social changes took place in the Maasai society due to colonial rule?
Ans.10: Due to the intervention of the colonial powers, the Maasai society witnessed number of changes in social organisations. The division based on age, between elders and warriors, grew weaker and the differences based on rich and poor pastoralists emerged.
Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Describe the lifestyle of Dhangars of Maharashtra.
Ans1: Dhangars were a pastoralist community of Maharashtra.
a) They were nomads and they always kept migrating from one place to other. During the monsoons, they lived in the central plateau of Maharashtra, as it turned into green grazing lands during the monsoon, which was otherwise dry.
b) They harvested bajra during the monsoon and then moved west, towards the Konkan coast as it had fertile soil and received high rainfall.
c) The Dhangars stayed there until the onset of the monsoon and during this time, their animals manured the fields on the Konkan coast and fed on its stubble.
d) As soon as the monsoon began, they moved back to Maharashtra as the monsoon conditions were not suitable for their herds.
Ques.2: Describe the features of the pastoralists of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Ans.2: The various pastoralist communities of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh includedGollas, Kurumas and Kurubas. The Kurumas and Kurubas reared sheep and goat and the Gollas herded cattle. They engaged in small trades, cultivated small patches of land, and mostly reared herds. Their seasonal movement depended on monsoons. During monsoons, the tribes that reared sheep moved to the dry plateau region as the wet conditions were not suitable for the sheep.
Ques.3: Who were the Banjaras?
Ans.3: The Banjaras are the grazers and are found in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. They moved from one place to another in search of good pastureland. On their voyages, they engaged in barter system in order to collect fodder and grains.
Ques.4: Discuss the features of Raikas of Rajasthan.
Ans.4: The Raikas of Rajasthan is a pastoralist community that is also engaged in agricultural activities. They cultivate their fields during the monsoons and graze their cattle. When these pastures are exhausted, they move to another place to find green pastures and water for their livestock.
Ques.5: When was the Criminal Tribes Act passed? What were its consequences for the tribal communities?
Ans.5: The colonial governments were highly suspicious of the nomadic communities. Moreover, they wanted to rule over a settled population as it was easy to rule over them. Hence, in 1871, the Criminal Tribes Act was passed which classified pastoralists, traders, and craftsmen communities as criminal by nature and birth. These communities were then forced to live a settled life in notified village settlements, and required permit to travel.
Ques.6: How did the changes by the colonial government affected the lives of the pastoralists?
Ans.6: The effects of the changes by the colonial government on the lives of pastoralists were:
- The area under pasturelands reduced drastically.
- Hence the same land had to be overgrazed, leading to overexploitation of the land, and leaving no time for it to regenerate.
- The pastoralists could no longer graze their cattle freely in the forests due to the Forest Act.
- The shortage of pastures led to a reduction in the number of cattle and livestock as they died of hunger.
- The rest of the cattle succumbed to starvation during famines.
Ques.7: What were the Waste Land rules?
Ans.7: The colonial government wanted to control all the grazing land and transform it into cultivable land. There were two-fold reasons behind this. Firstly, agricultural products were required to meet the industrial and other demands in England, and it would also increase their revenue generation.Secondly, the grazing land was considered to be ‘wasteland’. Hence, the colonial government enacted Waste Land rules, under which the grazing land was taken over by the government and distributed among selected individuals and they were encouraged to settle on these lands. As the grazing lands were taken over and cultivation was expanded, the pastoralists witnessed a decline in the availability of pastures, which made it difficult to maintain the livestock.
Ques.8: How did the colonial powers confine pastoralists in particular areas in Africa?
Ans.8: When the British invaded Africa, they took over all the fertile pasturelands that previously belonged to the pastoralists.
- Gradually, the tribes were forced to live in specified areas.
- They could not move out of these areas without the permission of the government.
- They could not participate in trade and were not allowed in white areas.
- All their nomadic and trading activities were also severely restricted.
Ques.9: In what ways did the pastoralists respond to the changes made by the colonial government?
Ans.9: The pastoralists responded to the changes made by the colonial government in the following ways:
a) Some groups discovered new pasturelands as their old lands were taken over by the colonial governments.
b) Some groups reduced the number of cattle as there were little or no pastures to feed them upon.
c) Certain prosperous pastoralists began to settle down and engage in cultivation. Others engaged themselves in trading.
d) Few others who fell under the category of poor pastoralists began working as labourers on the farms of newly settled pastoralists.
Ques.10: How did the restriction put by colonial powers make the situations even more adverse during droughts?
Ans.10: As the Maasai were bound to specific areas and they were restricted to move to any other parts, the availability of grazing lands was severely limited. As they could not access the best quality pastures, their livestock died due to hunger and starvation. It is also said that 50% of the cattle of the Maasai died in just two years, 1933 and 1934.
Ques.11: What were the major social groups in the Maasai society?
Ans.11: The Maasai society was divided into two social categories- elders and warriors. The elders ruled the society and were responsible to settle disputes and other community-related matters. The warriors were the younger people of the community who were responsible for its protection. However, the warriors were bound to follow the instructions given by their elders i.e. the Masai’s.
Ques.12: How was the social organisation of the Maasai altered due to colonial intervention?
Ans.12: The British made a series of changes to administer the Maasai tribe and its activities.
- They appointed chiefs of various sub-groups who would oversee the activities of that group.
- Restrictions were imposed on raiding and warfare. Eventually, elders and warriors lost their authority.
- These chiefs appointed by the British government eventually became wealthy. They began lending money to economically weaker sections of the tribe. They then began moving to cities and settled there bycaring out trading activities.
- The pastoralists who did not have resources to sustain their livestock also had to migrate to cities in search of livelihood.
Class 9 History Chapter 5 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Describe the movement of various mountain pastoralist communities during the summer and winter months.
Ans.1:There are various pastoralist communities found in the mountainous regions of India. Some of them are:
a) Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu & Kashmir: They are mainly known as the herders of sheep and goats. Their movement depends on the seasons. During the cold months, they live in the lower hills of the Shivalik range. Their herds graze in the available vegetation. During summers when the snow melts, around April, they move back to their summer grazing grounds. The fresh grasses available during this time are comparatively rich and nutritious for the herds. By September, they move back to the foothills, back to the winter grounds.
b) Gaddis of Himachal Pradesh: Their movement is also dependent on the seasons, andis very similar to that of the Gujjar Bakarwals. They spent their winters on the lower Shivalik foothills, and during summer months, they move back north to Lahul and Spiti. Here, they sow their crops. After the snow melts, many of them move back to mountain meadows. However,during September when they move back to lower grounds, on their way, they harvest their crops in Lahul and Spiti. The same movement is repeated in the following years.
c) Gujjars of Garhwal and Kumaon: During winters, they come down to the Bhabar forests, and go back to the high meadows in summers. They originally belong to Jammu and reached Uttar Pradesh searching for good pastures, in the nineteenth century.
These mountainous pastoralist communities follow the cyclical movement depending on the seasons. Other communities like the Bhotiyas, Sherpas and Kinnauris also follow these movements.
Ques.2: What problems did the pastoralists in Africa face due to colonial invasion? Ans.2: The various problems faced by the pastoralists in Africa due to colonial invasion were:
a) Reduction in the availability of grazing lands: When the imperial powers took over the Maasai lands, they divided the region into different colonies. The Maasai land was divided into British Kenya and German Tanganyika in 1885. Eventually, the colonial settlers took control of the best grazing lands and began settling on these lands.Subsequently, the Maasai lost nearly 60% of their land to colonial pursuits. They were forced to live in areas with poor pastures and low rainfalls.The British colonial government also began favouring cultivation in east Africa. This resulted in the conversion of grazing pasturelands into cultivable land. Another reason that caused the Maasai tribe to lose their land was the transformation of pasturelands into game reserves. Some of them are known as the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania.The pastoralists were not allowed entry in these reserves at all, even to graze their livestock.
b) Restrictions on movement:When the British invaded Africa, they took over all the fertile pasturelands that previously belonged to the pastoralists.Gradually, the tribes were forced to live in specified areas.They could not move out of these areas without the permission of the government.They could not participate in trade and were not allowed in white areas.All their nomadic and trading activities were severely restricted.
c) Increased adversity due to droughts:Before the British invasion, the Maasai groups would move from one place to another during droughts to ensure supply of pasturelands. However, with the British invasion the Maasai were now bound to stay in specific areas and were restricted to move to any other parts.The availability of grazing lands was severely limited for them. Also, since they could not access the best pastures, their livestock died due to hunger and starvation. It is said that 50% of the cattle of the Maasai died in just two years, 1933 and 1934.
d) Unequal impact on various sub-sections: They appointed chiefs of various sub-groups who would oversee the activities of that group. Restrictions were imposed on raiding and warfare. Eventually, elders and warriors lost their authority. These chiefs appointed by the British government eventually became wealthy. They began lending money to economically weaker sections of the tribe. They then began moving to cities and settling there and trading. The pastoralists who did not have resources to sustain their livestock also migrated to cities in search of livelihood.
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