Class 9 History Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in Forest Society and Colonialism. The chapter begins by discussing the reasons that led to increased deforestation during colonial times. The following section discusses how the colonial governments encouraged commercial forestry which led to the formulation of certain acts that deprived the local communities and villages of their livelihood. The next section explains how people in Bastar rebelled against the oppressive and discriminatory forest laws of the colonial government.
The chapter ends with a discussion of the effects of the world wars on the forests and how the governments finally involved the local communities to conserve the forests.
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Answer Questions: 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: What is deforestation?
Ans.1: The reckless felling of trees is known as deforestation.
Ques.2: What are sleepers?
Ans.2: These are the wooden planks which are used to hold the railway tracks together.
Ques.3: Why was the cultivation of commercial crops promoted by the British?
Ans.3: The British promoted the cultivation of commercial crops to fulfil the increasing demand for food grains to feed the increasing population and to supply raw materials for the industry.
Ques.4: What are plantations?
Ans.4: Plantations refer to the cultivation system where the same crop is cultivated over a large piece of land, for commercial purpose, with the help of technological inputs.
Ques.5: Who was Dietrich Brandis?
Ans.5: Dietrich Brandis was a German expert who was invited by the British togive advise on forest-related matters. He went on to become the first Inspector General of Forests of India.
Ques.6: When was Indian Forest Service set up? Which act did it help formulate?
Ans.6: The Indian Forest Service was set up in 1864. It helped formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
Ques.7: When and where was the first Imperial Forest Research Institute set up?
Ans.7: The first Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in 1906 in Dehradun.
Ques.8: When was the Forest Act passed? When was it amended?
Ans.8: The Forest Act was passed in 1865. It was further amended in the years 1878 and 1927.
Ques.9: What changes were introduced in the forest after the amendment of the Forest Act in 1878?
Ans.9: The amendment of 1878 divided the forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests. The ‘reserved’ forests category seemed to be the best as no intervention by villagers was allowed.
Ques.10: Which animal became the sporting trophy?
Ans.10: The tiger.
Ques.11: What excuse did the Britishers used to hunt tigers and other wild animals?
Ans.11: The Britishers believed that tigers and other wild animals were dangerous, not only for humans but also for the cultivation. And they believed that by killing these wild animals, they were civilising Indians. Therefore, they rewarded the people who killed tigers and other wild animals.
Ques.12: Which tribes came to be known as the ‘Criminal Tribes’?
Ans.12: The pastoralist and nomadic communities like the Korava, Karacha and Yerukula came to be known as the ‘criminal tribes’.
Ques.13: Name a few leaders who led the rebellions against the repressive forest policies of the colonial governments.
Ans.13: A few leaders who raised their voice against the repressive forest policies of the colonial governments were:
- Siddhu and Kanu in the Santhal Parganas
- Birsa Munda of Chhotanagpur
- Alluri Sitarama Raju of Andhra Pradesh
Ques.14: In which state is Bastar located?
Ques.15: Which river crosses Bastar district?
Ans.15: River Indravati
Ques.16: Name a few local communities of Bastar.
Ans.16: A few local communities of Bastar include Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas.
Ques.17: The people of every village had to pay a fee to access the forest resources of other villages in Bastar. What was the fee called?
Ans.17: The fee was called devsari, dand or man.
Ques.18: Who was Gunda Dhur?
Ans.18: Gunda Dhur, from village Nethanar, was a popular leader during the Bastar rebellion.
Ques.19: What were the results of the Bastar rebellion?
Ans.19: As a result of the Bastar rebellion, the reserved forest area was reduced by fifty percent and reservation work was temporarily suspended.
Ques.20: How did the forest laws change after the independence of India?
Ans.20: After Independence, the forests were yet again reserved for industrial uses and the local people were not allowed to use the forest resources.
Ques.21: Which colonial powers ruled Java?
Ans.21: The Dutch ruled Java.
Ques.22: Who were the Kalangs?
Ans.22: The Kalangs were the communities of skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators in Java.
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Why did the cultivation expand during the colonial period?
Ans.1: The cultivation expanded during colonial times due to the following reasons:
- The British largely favoured cultivation for commercial purposes. The demands for food grains by increasing populations and raw materials by the industries in Europe had to be fulfilled.
- The British considered forests as unproductive and hence cleared them to convert them into cultivation areas to meet the commercial requirements.
Ques.2: Why were the railways important for the colonial powers? Why did the railways require wood?
Ans.2: The railways were important for colonial powers as their trade dependent on railways and it was also required to transport the military troops from one place to another. The railways required wood for two major purposes: as fuelwood, and to make sleepers to hold the rail tracks together.
Ques.3: What kind of system, according to Brandis, was required to manage the forests?
Ans.3: According to Brandis, a system based on the science of conservation was required to be popularised. He believed that laws must be framed to manage and preserve forests. He further demanded that no grazing or felling of trees to be practiced by local people, and regulations be set up on the use of forest resources.
Ques.4: What was the system of scientific forestry?
Ans.4: This system of forestry was introduced by the Britishers. In this type of forestry, old trees were cut and new trees belonging to the same species were grown for commercial purposes. For forest management, the officials surveyed the forests and depending on the area under different types of trees, working plans were made. A set area was cut down for plantation purposes. This area was again replanted so that it can be reused in some years.
Ques.5: In what ways were the villagers dependent on the forests?
Ans.5: The villagers were dependent on the forests for a variety of purposes. The forests served as the grazing lands for their livestock. Products like fruits, roots and tubers, obtained from the forests served as food and for other important purposes. Herbs and wood could be obtained for medicinal and agricultural purposes respectively. Bamboo was the most useful as it could be used to make fences and buckets and umbrellas. Oil for cooking and lamps could be obtained from mahua trees. Everything available in the forests served one purpose or another.
Ques.6: How did the implementation of the Forest Act bring hardships for the local communities who were dependent on forests?
Ans.6: After the Forest Act was enforced, the local communities no longer had free access to the forest resources which they were previously dependent on for their livelihoods. Grazing, collecting wood and fruits, hunting, etc. became illegal. If anyone was caught stealing wood from the forest, they were severely punished. Women were the most worried as they were often the ones who collected fuelwood.
Ques.7: How did the Forest act change the hunting laws?
Ans.7: After the Forest Act was enforced, the local communities lost their right to hunt the animals. Many communities used to hunt wild animals for survival. But now it became illegal and these communities were punished for poaching. Eventually, hunting became a recreational sport for royalties and British officials. The tiger’s identity became popular as a sporting trophy.
Ques.8: How did the implementation of the Forest Act increase trading opportunities?
Ans.8: After the British took control of the forests, the native people could no longer depend on forests for their livelihood. Therefore, they began trading in forest products. Gradually, they became dependent on trade for their livelihoods. Also, large tracts of land were sold to European traders to trade in forest products.
Ques.9: What were the common beliefs of the tribal communities of Bastar?
Ans.9:The different tribes and communities in Bastar had similar beliefs. These were as follows:
- They believed that the land was given to them by the Earth and it was their duty to protect it.
- They also made offerings to the Earth at religious festivals.
- They worshipped the spirits of the rivers, forests and the mountains.
Ques.10: Explain the blandongdiensten system.
Ans.10: After the Dutch took over the forest lands in Java, no cultivation was allowed in the forest areas. If the land was to be cultivated, they had to pay rent. However, if they provided free labour and buffaloes for transporting timber, they were exempted from the blandongdiensten system.
Ques.11: What changes did the forest laws bring in Java?
Ans.11: The Forest Laws in Java restricted access of the local communities to the forests for collection of wood and other products. The wood could be collected only for specific purposes like constructing riverboats and houses.Grazing in young stands was punishable, just like travelling on forest roads with carts or cattle and transporting wood without a permit.
Ques.12: What was Samin’s challenge?
Ans.12: Samin’s challenge was posed by Surontiko Samin in 1890. He claimed that the state could not own forests, wind, water and wood as they did not create them. This eventually became a widespread movement, with over 3,000 families following his ideas by 1907. Saminists used different ways to protest against the forest laws. Some refused to pay taxes, or perform labour and some laid on the ground when the Dutch came to survey it.
Ques.13: How did the wars affect the forests?
Ans.13: The wars affected the forest regions in the world as well. Trees were being cut recklessly in India at the time of world wars to fulfil the needs of the British. The Dutch in Java destroyed large tracts of forests and tree logs only so that they could not be used by the Japanese. Once the Japanese took over Java, they too destroyed forests to meet the war needs. They forced the local people to cut down the forests. Some people took this as an opportunity to increase their cultivated lands.
Ques.14: How have the forest communities contributed to the preservation of the forests?
Ans.14: The forest authorities soon began to realise that the forests cannot be protected without the involvement of the forest communities. As these communities considered the forests as sacred, they protected them with all their power. These communities utilised the forest resources in a way that did not disturb the ecological balance and conserved them by limiting their exploitation
Class 9 History Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: What were the major causes of deforestation in India during colonial times?
Ans.1: The major causes of deforestation in India during colonial times were:
a) Cultivation: Large areas of forests were cleared to cultivate the lands to meet the demands of increasing populations. The Britishers encouraged cultivation for the following reasons:
- The British largely favoured cultivation for commercial money making purposes. The demands for food grains by increasing populations and raw materials by the industries in Europe had to be fulfilled. Commercial crops like cotton, jute etc. were cultivated.
- The British considered forests as unproductive and hence cleared them to convert them into cultivation areas to meet the commercial requirements.
b) Railways: The oak trees in England began to disappear as most of the oak wood was used up in shipbuilding. To meet the increasing demand for wood, the search parties reached India while looking for forests and then began destroying them to meet the growing requirements of the railways.
- The railways were important for colonial powers as their trade was majorly dependent on it.
- It was also required to transport the military troops from one place to another.
- The railways required wood for two major purposes: as fuelwood, and to make sleepers to hold the rail tracks together.
- Forests around the railway tracks began fast disappearing to meet these requirements.
c) Plantations: Large tracts of forests were cleared and sold to European planters. These lands were used to grow plantations of tea and coffee to meet the demands of the European society.
Ques.2: Explain the process of shifting cultivation. Why did the colonial government ban shifting cultivation in India?
Ans.2: Shifting cultivation is a process of cultivation in which a part of the forest is cut down, burnt, and cultivated in rotation. When the ashes of these burnt trees are cool down the seeds are sown after the first rain. The crops are harvested in October-November. The same patch of land is cultivated for a few years and then left fallow for the forest to regrow.
This traditional agricultural practice is practiced in many parts of Asia, South America and Africa. In Southeast Asia, it is known as lading and chena in Sri Lanka. It is known as milpa in Central America, and as Tavy in Africa. In India, it is known as penda, bewar, nevad, jhum, podu, khandadand kumri.
The colonial government did not support the process of shifting cultivation and banned it as they considered it to be harmful for the forests. They believed that as this process involved cutting of forests, they could not regenerate soon enough to provide timber for railways. Another danger that shifting cultivation posed was that the fire could spread to other forest areas, thereby damaging valuable timber. The government also could not collect taxes easily. Hence, they banned the shifting cultivation.
Ques.3: Explain in detail the Bastar rebellion.
Ans.3: In 1905, the colonial government reserved two-thirds of the forests and banned shifting cultivation and hunting-gathering in the forests of Bastar. People were not allowed in the reserved forests, only except those who worked for the forest department for free. They helped in protecting forests from fire and in transporting the trees. These became the ‘village forests’. The rest of the villages suffered from indiscrimination laws. They were being displaced from their lands without any adequate compensation. The land rents were high and people were subject to free labour. The famines of 1899-1900 and 1907-1908 further worsened the conditions.
Eventually, people began discussing their issues widely, in bazaars, village councils and festivals. The Dhurwas of Kanger forest initiated the protests. Gunda Dhur from the village Nethanar was an important figure in the rebellion. In 1910, to increase awareness, mango boughs, sand, chillies and arrow were circulated among villages. All the villages united for the rebellion. They looted bazaars, and houses of officials and traders. They robbed schools and police stations and redistributed the grains. All those attacked were a part of the British government and its oppressive laws.
The British government tried to suppress the rebellion. When the Adivasis tried to negotiate, they did not agree and fired upon them. Frightened, people fled the villages and the villages were deserted.
It took the British three months to gain full control over the situation. As a result of the rebellion, the reserved forest area was reduced by fifty percent and reservation work was temporarily suspended.
Ques.4: How were the situations in Java and India the same in terms of the forest laws?
Ans.4: The colonial management in Baster was done by the Britishers and by the Dutch in Java. However, there were certain similarities in forest management. These were:
a) In both Bastar and Java, the colonial powers formulated and enforced new forest laws that deprived the local forest dwellers of their homes and livelihood.
b) The practice of shifting cultivation was banned in Bastar by the Britishers and in Java by the Dutch as it was considered dangerous for the forests.
c) The forest resources were recklessly exploited to fulfil the needs of the colonial countries, especially for building sleepers for railway tracks.
d) In both the countries, the once-native dwellers of the forests were now forced to pay taxes to use resources from the forests and were not allowed to do so without the permission of the colonial masters.
e) In Bastar, the villagers were allowed to reside in the forests if they agreed to serve the forest department for free. In Java, the workers were allowed to cultivate the forests without paying any taxes only if they were willing to serve the forest department.
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