Class 9 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in Nazism and the Rise of Hitler. The chapter on Nazism begins with the discussion of how the Weimar Republic came into existence, how during its reign the economy and society faced desolation and the Weimar Republic was unsuccessful in resolving these issues. The following section discusses how these conditions gave rise to Hitler and Nazism in Germany, following which the democracy was destroyed and the German society reconstructed. The next section discusses the basics of Nazism and how it was developed based on Hitler’s worldview. The section also discusses how Hitler went on to create a racial state with only Nordic Aryans as the ‘desirables’ and the rest of the races being ‘undesirable’. The next section of the chapter discusses how youth was taken control of Nazi Germany and how eventually they went on to serve in the German army. The use of propaganda as a weapon to influence the masses is explained.
The chapter ends with a brief discussion of how the different sections of society in Nazi Germany viewed these changes.
Class 9 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Answer Questions: 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: Who were the Allies?
Ans.1: They were one of the parties in the World Wars. Initially, led by the UK and France and later joined by the UK and USSR.
Ques.2: Who was Hitler’s propaganda minister?
Ans.2: Joseph Goebbels
Ques.3: When, where and with whom did Hitler commit suicide?
Ans.3: When Germany lost the Second World War, Hitler realised that what was coming was awful. Hence, in April 1945, he committed suicide with his propaganda minster and his family collectively, in the Berlin Bunker.
Ques.4: Which Tribunal came into existence to prosecute Nazi criminals after World War II? What crimes did they commit?
Ans.4: International Military Tribunal or the Nuremberg Tribunal was set up to prosecute the Nazi criminals for the Crimes against Peace, War and for Crimes Against Humanity.
Ques.5: Who were the ‘November Criminals’?
Ans.5: Socialists, Democrats, and Catholics were called the ‘November Criminals’ as they were the supporters of the Weimar Republic.
Ques.6: What was the ‘Dawes Plan’?
Ans.6: The plan was aimed at easing the financial burden on Germans by reworking the terms of reparation.
Ques.7: Which group did Hitler join in 1919? What was it renamed as? What did it subsequently come to be known as?
Ans.7: Hitler joined the German Workers’ Party in 1919. It was renamed as National Socialist German Workers’ Party. It subsequently came to be known as the Nazi Party.
Ques.8: Who was the President of Germany before Hitler took over as the dictator?
Ans.8: Paul von Hindenburg
Ques.9: What were the major projects that were the outcome of the state-funded work-creation programme in Germany?
Ans.9: Due to the state-funded work-creation programme in Germany, the following important projects were produced.
- German superhighways
- Volkswagen Car
Ques.10: As a part of Germany’s reconstruction policy, which areas in Europe did Hitler reoccupy?
Ans.10: The areas in Europe that were reoccupied by Germany during reconstruction were:
- Rhineland in 1936
- Austria in 1938
Ques.11: When was the Tripartite Act signed? Who were its signatories?
Ans.11: The Tripartite Act was signed in September 1930. The signatories were Germany, Japan, and Italy. This signing of the act greatly aided Hitler to claim international power.
Ques.12: Which economist framed the economic policy for Nazi Germany during the reconstruction process?
Ans.12: Hjalmar Schacht
Ques.13: When did Germany invade Poland?
Ans.13: Germany invaded Poland in September 1939.
Ques.14: According to Hitler, which were the ‘undesirable’ races?
Ans.14: The ‘undesirable’ races, according to Hitler, were:
- Black community living in Germany
- Russians and Poles .
Ques.15: When was the Youth League of Nazis found?
Ans.15: The Youth League of Nazis was found in 1922. It was renamed as Hitler Youth in 1926.
Ques.16: What were known as the disinfection areas?
Ans.16: The gas chambers were known as the disinfection areas. These were meant for Jews. They looked like bathrooms and consisted of fake showerheads.
Class 9 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: How was European society and polity affected by the First World War?
Ans.1: After the First World War, European society was majorly devastated. Europe turned into a continent of debtors. The most hit amongst all were also the European society and polity.
- Soldiers were more valued as compared to citizens, and the trench life was massively glorified.
- However, the soldiers lived a miserable life in the trenches. They were forced to live in such conditions where rats fed on corpses. Poisonous gas was common and their ranks reduced.
- The society was massively motivated using aggressive war propaganda.
- The populations largely supported the dictatorship.
Eventually, the already weak concept of democracy could not stand the instabilities it faced in Europe.
Ques.2: Describe the uprising of the Spartacist League.
Ans.2: At the same time when the Weimer Republic came into existence, the Spartacist League also rose, following the ideals of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. The Soviet-style organisations were on the rise and they demanded Soviet-style governance. During the same time, Democrats, Socialists, and Catholics met at Weimer in order to shape a democratic republic. The Spartacist uprising was crushed by the Weimer Republic. Following this, the Spartacist league found the Communist Party of Germany.
Ques.3: How did the economic crisis of 1923 lead to hyperinflation in Germany?
Ans.3: After the war, Germany had to repay the damages done in Europe by the war. They were forced to pay reparations in gold when the existing gold reserves were already scarce. In 1923, France occupied Ruhr, the coal-rich region of Germany, when Germany refused to pay the reparations. In reaction, Germany printed large amounts of paper currency. This led to increased money circulation in the economy and led to its severe devaluation.In April, 1 US dollar was equal to 24,000 marks, 4,621,000 marks in August, and by December, this value reached up to 98,860,000. This led to a massive increase in the prices of goods. This eventually led to a phenomenal rise in prices, causing hyperinflation.
Ques.4: What was the Great Depression of 1929?
Ans.4: The period of extreme recession in the US economy was termed as the Great Depression. The stock market of the USA, the Wall Street Exchange crashed in 1929. A large number of people sold their shares fearing a fall in prices. This was the beginning of the Great Depression. Following this, the US economy was badly hit with the recession. Exports reduced, money was withdrawn from the market, and a large number of factories were shut. The impacts of this economic crisis were felt across the world.
Ques.5: Why did the public lose faith in the Weimar Republic and the democratic system of governance?
Ans.5: The population of Germany was unhappy with the Weimar Republic. The system of proportional representation adopted in the democratic system made it nearly impossible for any one particular party to win the majority. Another major defect was Article 48, which granted powers to the President to impose emergency as per his will. Eventually, the public lost faith in the Weimar Republic and the democratic system of governance.
Ques.6: What was the Enabling Act of 1933? What powers did it grant Hitler?
Ans.6: The Enabling Act was passed on 3 March 1933, leading to the establishment of dictatorship in Germany.Now all the powers vested with the leader Hitler, giving him the power to dismiss the Parliament, and rule according to his own will. All other political parties and trade unions were banned, and the state took control of the economy, judiciary, media, and army.
Ques.7: What changes took place after the Enabling Act was passed?
Ans.7: After the enabling Act was passed, the Nazis took whole control of German society. New police troops like Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (the protection squads), criminal police and the Security Service (SD) were set up. These forces could detain people and either deport them or send them to concentration camps.
Ques.8: The Peace Treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace. Explain.
Ans.8: The Peace Treaty was signed at Versailles by the Weimar Republic, as forced by the Allies, blaming Germany for the First World War. This critically displeased the population of Germany.
- All the overseas colonies of Germany were lost, with one-tenth of its population and 13% of its territory.
- 26% of its coal reserves 75% of its iron reserves were lost to Poland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania.
- Germany was demilitarised by the Allied Powers to weaken the power of Germany.
- Germany was held responsible for the war and damages caused to the Allied Powers through the War Guilt Clause.
- A compensation of £6 billion was imposed on Germany.
- The resource-rich region of Rhineland was also occupied by the Allied Powers.
Hence, the Peace Treaty at Versailles with the allies was a harsh and humiliating peace.
Ques.9: Why was USA reluctant to enter the Second World War? How did it subsequently enter the war?
Ans.9: The USA was reluctant to enter the war as it did not want to face the adversities of the First World War all over again that shattered the economy of the country. However, when Japan seemed to extend its power and it bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor, the USA entered the war and ended the war by dropping an atom bomb on Hiroshima in May 1945.
Ques.10: Discuss the impact of the Great Depression of 1929 on the German economy.
Ans.10: The effects of the Great Depression of 1929 were felt across the world. Germany was the worst hit by the crisis as the country was already held responsible for the First World War and was made to pay a huge amount of money as reparation. The following were the impacts of the Great Depression on the German economy.
- The wages of the workers reduced and many workers lost their jobs.
- Industrial production decreased by 40%.
- More than 6 million workers were unemployed.
- Youth engaged in criminal activities to earn money.
- The savings of the people diminished.
- Businesses were ruined and were facing severe crisis.
- Agricultural prices fell, leading the peasantry into misery.
Ques.11: What was the concept of Lebensraum?
Ans.11: Hitler believed in the geopolitical concept of Lebensraum, i.e. the living space. He believed that acquiring new territories was crucial for settlements. This would work two ways: to increase the area of the mother nation, and to enhance the power and resources of Germany. It would also help the settled people to remain linked with their origin.
Ques.12: What were the Nuremberg Laws of Citizenship? When was it passed?
Ans.12: The Nuremberg Laws of Citizenship were passed in September 1935. Those were as follows::
- The Aryans and the people of German blood would be considered the citizens of Germany.
- Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden.
- No extramarital relations between Jews and Germans were allowed.
- No Jew was allowed to fly the national flag.
Ques.13: How did ordinary people view the rise of Nazi Germany and its actions?
Ans.13: The people in Nazi Germany had different views of the Nazi ideology. As the Nazi propaganda aimed to do so, large populations in Germany were highly influenced and largely supported the Nazi ideology. They developed a feeling of hatred against the Jews. The Jews were reported to be suspicious neighbours. They firmly believed that Nazism would help Germany regain its reputation.
However, there was a section of society that did not favour the Nazis. They organised protests against the Nazi government, but were repressed and eventually killed. The majority of them just witnessed the happenings and never raised their voices, fearing death.
The Jews, who were the target of the Nazi ideology, were the worst affected. Not only were they killed, due to the excessive stereotypical portrayal of Jews, but they themselves also began believing in those stereotypes. Jews died many deaths even before they reached the gas chamber.
Class 9 History Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Discuss Hitler’s rise to power and popularisation of Nazism during the Great Depression.
Ans.1: Germany had lost the First World War and the signing of the Peace Treaty at Versailles had drained it of all its resources. The signing of the Versailles Treaty had infuriated the citizens and damaged the reputation of Germany. The economy had been severely hit by the Great Depression of 1929, and the Weimar Republic failed badly to recover the losses. The political situation of the country was also in a tussle as communists and socialists were fighting. The inability of the Weimar Republic to cope up with the economic, political, and social unrest and the weakened conditions due to the Great Depression aided Hitler’s rise to power and popularisation of Nazism.
- Hitler went on to become the most prominent leader who led Nazism to power. During the First World War, Hitler was active in the army and he earned many medals for his bravery. He joined the German Workers’ Party in 1919. Taking over the organisation subsequently, he renamed it as National Socialist German Workers’ Party, which later came to be known as the Nazi Party.
- His initial attempts to gain power failed. However, during the time of the Great Depression, Nazis were largely successful in gaining support from the middle classes as they were the most affected by the economic crisis. A large proportion of workers lost jobs and the middle class found themselves miserable. By 1932, the Nazis were popular and became the largest party by gaining 37% votes.
- Hitler understood the importance of mass mobilisation and used it as a weapon to influence masses. Rallies and public meetings were organised on a large scale.
- Hitler’s promises to recover the reputation of Germany and restore the economy made people follow him. His promise to make Germany strong, undo the damage done by the Versailles Treaty and raise employment opportunities made people believe his cause. His devotion to work against international conspiracies against Germany gave people hope. Hitler’s propaganda soon began portraying him as a messiah, the saviour of the German public.
All these factors aided the rise of Nazism in the 1930s.
Ques.2: What steps were taken by Hitler in the direction of reconstruction of Germany? How did it eventually lead to the Second World War?
Ans.2: After Hitler took over Germany, he took steps to reconstruct Germany. The following steps were taken by Hitler in the direction of reconstruction of Germany:
- A state-funded work-creation programme was introduced by economist Hjalmar Schacht which aimed at economic recovery. German superhighways and the Volkswagen were the products of this programme.
- Germany exited the League of Nations in 1933 and in 1936, he reoccupied Rhineland and merged Austria with Germany in 1938.
- He also took over the country of Czechoslovakia and merged it with Germany.
- In order to increase the resource-base, Hitler continued to annex new territories. He invaded Poland in 1939, September.
The invasion of Poland started a war with England and France. In the following year, the Tripartite Act was signed by Germany, Japan, and Italy, aiding Hitler’s claim of international power. Hitler then waged a war against the Soviet Union in June 1941. This led to Germany being vulnerable to bombings on the western front and strong Soviet armies in the eastern front. Germany was eventually defeated in the war. These proceedings of continuous wars were the Second World War, and Hitler’s aim to expand the German territory led to this war.
Initially, USA was reluctant to be a part of the war as it did not want to face the adversities of the First World War all over again that shattered the economy of their country. However, when Japan seemed to extend its power and bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor, USA too entered the war and ended the war by dropping an atom bomb on Hiroshima, Japan in May 1945.
Ques.3: Why and how did the Nazis establish Germany as a racial state?
Ans.3: Hitler firmly believed that only the Nordic Aryans were the purest, finest, and healthiest races of all. He dreamt of creating a society where only Aryans existed and no other racial community was present. The other races were termed ‘undesirables’. Only the Nordic Aryans were ‘desirable’. Euthanasia Programme was started which eliminating all the mentally and physically unfit Germans.Apart from the Jews, other communities of Gypsies and blacks living in Germany were also considered as ‘undesirables’. Russians and Poles were a part of the same group. After Poland and parts of Russia were occupied, Russians and Poles were made slaves in Germany.
Jews were the worst hit by the hatred of Germans. They were popularised as killers of Christ, and for a long time, they were not allowed to own any land, and they lived in geographically segregated areas, called ghettos. Hitler’s hatred of Jews stemmed from the false belief that ‘the Jewish Problem’ could only be solved by eliminating Jews completely.As a result, from 1933 to 1938, Jews were terrorised, and in the following years. They were killed in gas chambers in Poland.
Ques.4: Discuss how the Nazis systematically eliminated Jews from the country?
Ans:4: Hitler and Nazims were extremely against the Jewish community. In order to eliminate the Jews completely in the name of achieving ‘racial purity’, a systematic process was followed by the Nazis.
Stage 1: Exclusion (1933-1939)
- The Nazis began with excluding the Jews from society. They had no right to live among them as citizens.
- The Nuremberg Laws of Citizenship were passed in 1935 which had the following clauses:
- The Aryans and the people of German blood would be considered the citizens of Germany.
- Marriages between Jews and Germans were forbidden.
- Extramarital relations between Jews and Germans became a crime.
- Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag.
- Jewish businesses were boycotted and their properties confiscated.
- Jews were looted, attacked and synagogues burnt in November 1938. This is remembered as ‘the night of broken glass’.
Besides, Jewish properties were vandalised and looted, houses attacked, synagogues burnt and men arrested in a pogrom in November. 1938, remembered as ‘the night of broken glass’
Stage 2: Ghettoisation (1940 – 1944)
- In this stage, the Jews were now not allowed to live among the Germans.
- They were forced to wear a yellow Star of David, and the same mark was stamped on their passports as well as other documents and houses.
- They were forced to live in ghettos and Jewish houses., and were forced to give up all their assets before they began to live there.
- These areas were extremely miserable and Jews had to face hunger and poor hygienic conditions.
Stage 3: Annihilation (1941 onwards):
- By now, the Jews were completely in a destitute situation and they no longer even had the right to live.
- Jews from all over Germany and Europe were taken to the concentration camps in Poland, Belzek, Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno, and Majdanek.
- Here, they were burned. A total genocide of Jews was undertaken and the Jews were completely eliminated from Germany.
Ques.5: What was the Nazi system of schooling?
Ans.5: Hitler firmly believed that to establish a society with strong Nazism ideas, it was important to teach the Nazi ideology to children. And in order to achieve this, it was important to take control of children both inside and outside school. The Nazi system of schooling had the following peculiar features:
- All the Jewish and other ‘undesirable’ teachers were dismissed from the schools.
- Segregation was done among children themselves. Firstly, German and Jew’s kids were not allowed to play together. Then eventually, the Jew kids and other ‘undesirables’ and handicapped kids were dismissed from the schools. And then finally taken to gas chambers.
- ‘Good German’ children were provided ideological training and the school books were rewritten. Racial science was taught to justify the Nazi hierarchy of races.
- Sports were meant to cultivate emotions of aggression in children, and children were taught to worship Hitler and hate Jews.
- Children aged 10-14 years had to enter Jungvolk, where they were taught ‘the spirit of National Socialism’. When turned 14, they had to join Hitler Youth, where they were taught to glorify aggression, worship war, condemn democracy, and hate the ‘undesirables’.
- When they turned 18, they had to join the Labour Service, and then they served in the armed forces.
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