Class 9 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution. The chapter on the Russian Revolution begins with an introduction to the various ideological groups present in society and how the political and social changes began changing Russian society. The following section discusses the Russian empire before the revolution and how the economy and society of the empire were structured. It also touches upon the 1905 Revolution. The chapter then discusses the February and October Revolutions which were together called the Russian Revolution. The following section discusses the changes that took place due to the revolution, and how a socialist society was formed. The collectivisation programme by Stalin is also discussed.
The chapter ends with a discussion on the global influence of the Russian Revolution and the USSR.
Class 9 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Answer Type Questions: 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: Who were the Liberals?
Ans.1: The Liberals were a group of people who aimed at changing society and were secular. They did not favour any specific religion and were particularly against the concept of monarchy. They believed in the concept of fundamental rights and were largely in favour of representative parliamentary form of government elected by the citizens themselves. They demanded the setting up of an independent judiciary to safeguard individual rights. However, they did not support the concept of universal adult franchise and were against granting the voting rights to women, and believed that only men owning property should be allowed to vote.
Ques.2: Who were Radicals?
Ans.2: The radicals were a group of people who believed that the governments should be based on the vote of the majority of the population. As opposed to the liberals, they believed in the universal adult franchise and some even favoured granting voting rights to women.They were against the privileges of wealthy landowners, but they did not oppose private ownership. They were only against the accumulation of wealth with a small section of society.
Ques.3: Define Conservationists.
Ans.3: This section of the society completely opposed any kind of change and was absolutely opposite to liberal and radical ideology. However, gradually they changed their ideology and favoured change through a slow process.
Ques.4: What was the Suffragette movement?
Ans.4: It was a movement demanding the right to vote for women.
Ques.5: Whose writings inspired people in Italy to fight for nations with equal rights?
Ans.5: Giuseppe Mazzini’s writings became an inspiration for not only the people of Italy but also for the populations across various other countries.
Ques.6: Name some of the famous socialists.
Ans.6: Some of the popular socialists with different ideologies were:
- Robert Owen
- Louis Blanc
- Karl Marx
Ques.7: What was ‘New Harmony’?
Ans.7: New Harmony was a cooperative community, set up on the suggestion of Robert Owen.
Ques.8: Which socialist trade unions formed with the support of socialism?
Ans.8: Various socialists trade unions were formed across Europe with the support of socialism. These were:
- Social Democratic Party in Germany
- Socialist Party in France
- Labour Party in Britain
Ques.9: Which international body was formed to coordinate the efforts of socialism across Europe?
Ans.9: The Second International
Ques.10: Who ruled the Russian empire before the Russian Revolution?
Ans.10: Tsar Nicholas II
Ques.11: What was the extent of the Russian empire?
Ans.11: The Russian empire included the territories of present-day Russia, Latvia, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of Poland, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. The Russian empire extended in the Pacific Ocean as well.
Ques.12: What feature set apart the Russian peasants from other European peasants?
Ans:12: The unique feature of the Russian peasants was that from time to time, they pooled their land resources and redistributed it among themselves based on the needs of individual families. This feature set the Russian peasants apart from other European workers.
Ques.13: Which workers called themselves the ‘aristocrats of workers’ and why?
Ans.13: Metalworkers in the factories considered themselves as the ‘aristocrats of workers’ as theirs was among those works requiring special skills, expertise, and training.
Ques.14: Name the socialist parties formed in Russia.
Ans.14: The socialist parties formed in Russia were:
- Russian Social Democratic Workers in 1898
- Social Revolutionary Party in 1900
Ques.15: What were the internal factions of the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party?
Ans.15: Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
Ques.16: St. Petersburg was renamed as ___________.
Ques.17: How did February 23 come to be recognised as the International Women’s Day?
And.17: On 23 February, workers from 50 factories took to roads to strike and protest against the lockout in a factory. Many groups in these strikes were led by women. Hence, this day came to be recognised as International Women’s Day.
Ques.18: Who were the reds, greens, and the whites?
Ans.18: Reds were the Bolsheviks; greens were the Socialist Revolutionaries and whites were pro-Tsarists.
Ques.19: Define Jadidists.
Ans.19: Jadidists was a section of people in Muslim society demanding modernised Islam.
Ques.20: Who headed the Bolshevik Party after Lenin’s death?
Ans.20: Joseph Stalin.
Ques.21: Which organisations came into existence as the result of the global influence of the USSR?
Ans.21: The impact of the Russian Revolution was visible across various nations. People from non-USSR nations actively participated in major organisations like:
- Conference of the Peoples of the East
- Comintern (a pro-Bolshevik union)
Class 9 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Differentiate between Liberals and Radicals.
Ques.2: Who were the socialists?
Ans.2: Socialists was the name given to the followers of socialism.
- They were against the concept of private property ownership and believed that the property must be owned by the government.
- In their view, private property ownership led to the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a smaller section of the society, promoting personal gain.
- The attention thus should be on the collective gain and social interest of all members of the society.
- They carried out extensive campaigns and worked hard to set up socialist form of government.
Ques.3: What different visions about socialism existed?
Ans.3: The ideology of socialism around the world varied from one region to another. People had their own visions about how society should be structured as a socialist one.
- An English manufacturer, Robert Owen, favoured the idea of cooperatives. He worked to build a cooperative community, New Harmony, in Indiana (USA).
- Others like Louis Blanc were of the view that government initiative is necessary for setting up large cooperatives and reducing the influence of capitalism. He circulated the concept of working in associations and dividing the profits based on the amount of work done.
- These ideas were further refined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. He believed in order to escape the exploitation by capitalism, a society must be designed where the assets are socially owned. Workers must oppose the capitalistic setup and work towards the formation of a communist society.
Ques.4: Briefly explain the Marxist ideology.
Ans.4: The Marxist ideology was named after the ideologist who proposed the theory, i.e. Karl Marx.
- According to Marx, industrialization was a capitalistic concept.
- Most of the factories and property were owned by capitalists and the profit earned by the workers was taken away from them. The conditions of the workers were grim.
- He believed that only when the workers fought against capitalism and dismantled its power, can this exploitation be overcome by them.
- For this, Marx suggested a society where the property was socially controlled. He inspired workers to develop a communist society.
- In his opinion, communist society was natural and that future held great success for this society.
Ques.5: When and how did socialism spread across Europe?
Ans.5: The ideology of socialism grew popular in the rest of Europe by the 1870s. The Second Internation was set up to coordinate the socialists across Europe. Eventually, workers in Germany and England began forming associations and unions and started demanding better wages and working conditions. Funds were maintained to help the members of associations in times of need. Associations like the Social Democratic Party in Germany, Labour Party in Britain, and the Socialist Party in France were set up. The idea of socialism grew stronger and gradually began influencing the governments.
Ques.6: Describe the Russian economy at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Ans.6: The Russian economy was largely dependent on agriculture, with 85% of its population engaged in agricultural practices.
- Russia was a major exporter of food grains before 1905.
- Industries were not popular and were only found in small concentrations. The Major industrial regions were St. Petersburg and Moscow. Almost all the industrial units were private properties, with almost no government supervision over large ones.
- Major production was undertaken by craftsmen.
- Industrial growth was aided with the extension of rail networks and increased foreign investment in industries.
- Iron and steel production increased by four times and coal production doubled.
Ques.7: How did the Social Democrats differ from the Social Revolutionaries?
Ans.7: The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was found in 1898. The Socialist Revolutionary Party came into existence in 1900. They believed that the system of Russian peasants whereby they pooled and redistributed their land depending on individual family needs was socialist in nature, and hence the peasants should be the force of the revolution.
However, the Democrats disagreed on the ground that the peasants were a diverse community with some peasants being rich, owning the land,employing the poor peasants and others to work on their fields, were the less prosperous ones forced to work on the farms of capitalistic peasants. Hence the Democrats believed that not all peasants could be a part of the socialist movement.
Ques.8: What were the consequences of the 1905 Revolution?
Ans.8: The consequences of the 1905 Revolution were as follows:
- An elected parliament called the Duma was set up.
- Factory workers formed associations and trade unions.
- Political activity was limited.
- Eventually, the Tsar began restricting these associations and unions and declared them illegal.
- The Duma was dissolved within 75 days of its formation.
- Voting laws were changed and the third Duma was elected, having members belonging only to the conservatives.
Ques.9: What was the April Theses?
Ans.9: After the February Revolution, when Lenin returned from exile in April, he realised that now it was time for the Soviet socialists to control the power. Lenin put forth the following three demands:
- The war should end.
- The lands should be transferred to nobility.
- The banks should be nationalised.
These demands were together known as the April Theses.
Ques.10: What changes were brought by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution?
Ans.10: The changes brought by the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution were:
- No one could own any private property.
- Banks and industries were nationalised.
- Land was no longer a private property and peasants were allowed to seize the land.
- Large houses were broken up based on family requirements.
- New military and official uniforms were introduced, the most popular of them being budeonovka, the Soviet hat.
Ques.11: How did the political conditions change after the October revolution?
Ans.11: After the October Revolution, a series of political changes took place in Russia.
- The Bolsheviks renamed themselves as the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).
- The elections were conducted in November 1917 where the Bolsheviks lost. The Assembly thus elected was dismissed by Lenin the following year, so that fresh elections could be conducted and a more democratic All Russian Congress could be elected.
- Eventually, the Bolsheviks began to take decisions against the opinions of the opposition members.
- In the coming years, the Bolsheviks were the only party that began contesting the elections. It was followed by Russia becoming a one-party country.
- Secret police department was set up and people who criticized the government were punished.
- Though the crowds still supported the party, they were largely misguided owing to the censorship.
Ques.12: What led to the Civil War in Russia?
Ans.12: As the land was now being redistributed, soldiers and peasants began moving to their homes to acquire the land.
- Meanwhile, the non-Bolsheviks, who were against the Bolsheviks, began moving south to organise troops to fight the Bolshevik uprising.
- The Socialist Revolutionaries and pro-Tsarists took control of the Russian empire in 1918 and 1919.
- To gain back the control, the Bolsheviks fought these groups, which resulted in the Civil war.
- Casualties were high and cases of looting increased. Famines also became common.
Ques.13: Describe the Russian Society in the 1950s.
Ans.13: By the year of 1950, socialists around the world began criticising the Russian Revolution as it no longer represented the ideals it began with. Though the country had witnessed modernisation of industry and development in agriculture, the essential rights were denied to its citizens and they were largely being repressed. Eventually, Russia lost the reputation that it held among other socialist nations. But the Russian Revolution continued to inspire socialists worldwide.
Class 9 History Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Which event is known as the Bloody Sunday in the history of the Russian Revolution? How did it lead to the 1905 Revolution?
Ans.1: The workers and peasants in Russia, along with the Social Democrats and Socialist Revolutionaries fought for their rights and better living conditions during the 1905 revolution. Multiple factors agitated these groups to fight the government.
- The conditions in Russia began worsening for the workers in the year 1904.
- The prices of essential commodities saw a major price hike, reducing the real wages of the workers by 20%.
- In the same year, four workers of the Assembly of Russian Workers were dismissed, which agitated the workers across all the other factory associations.
- In protest of this event, over 110,000 workers in St. Petersburg went on strike, demanding the following demands to be fulfilled.
a) Improved working conditions
b) Eight-hours working day
c) Increased wages.
- When the protesting workers reached the king’s Winter Palace, they were attacked by armed forces. Hundreds of soldiers were killed and an enormous number were injured.
This was the infamous incident of Bloody Sunday. The events following this incident were collectively called the 1905 Revolution. Widespread protests took place all over the country, and a lack of civil liberties was questioned. A number pf unions were established by doctors, engineers, lawyers, and middle-class workers.
Ques.2: How was the First World War different on the eastern side as compared to the western side? What were its impacts on the Russian empire?
Ans.2: The First World War began in the year 1914. The war was fought both in and outside of Europe. The way the war was fought in the east and the west varied greatly.
- On the western front, the war was fought from trenches along eastern France.
- However, in the east, the movement of armies was strong and there were large casualties.
- The armies were badly defeated. When they retreated, they destroyed crops and damaged the buildings in order to make it difficult for the opposing armies.
- Eventually, the Tsar government grew unpopular and the soldiers began backing out of the war.
The war had major implications for the Russian industry.
- The already fewer industries were severely hit by the shortages of supply.
- Industrial equipment disintegrated, and railways started to break down.
- Factories and shops fell short of labour as most of them were required to fight the war. Hence the factories and shops were shut.
- Food resources became scarce as most of them were used to feed the soldiers.
- This resulted in riots.
Ques.3: Discuss in detail the February Revolution of 1917. What were its effects?
Ans.3: The city was divided into two economically separate sections. The workers were on the right bank of River Neva, and the left side of the river had all important buildings like the Palace and official buildings.
- The winters were severe in February and workers on the right bank of the river faced food shortage.
- Tsar wished to dissolve the Duma, as opposed to the parliamentarians who wished to preserve the elected government.
- A factory lockout took place on 22nd February, following which workers from fifty factories went on strike the next day, on 23 February.
- Many sections were led by women. Hence the day came to be recognised as International Women’s Day.
- Around the same time, on 25th February, the Duma was suspended by the government.
- On 27th February, the demonstrators plundered the police stations, demanding their rights to better working conditions, democracy, and sufficient food supplies to be fulfilled.
- A soviet named Petrograd Soviet was formed by the protesting workers and soldiers.
- Tsar was forced to leave the throne on 2nd March 1917, thereby collapsing the monarchy and the Provisional Government formed by Soviet and Duma leaders took over the country.
Effects of the February Revolution were:
- Soviets began to be set up around the country, and associations and public meetings were legalised.
- Lenin, the leader of the Bolsheviks demanded to transfer land to the peasants, nationalisation and putting an end to the war.
- Factory committees questioning the system of running the factories were formed and many trade unions emerged. Soldiers’ committees were being set up in the army.
- Eventually, the Bolshevik influence continued to grow.
- Land began to be redistributed by the committees, and between July and September, peasants began seizing the land.
Ques.4: What was the Russian Revolution? Discuss the October revolution in detail. What were its social and political impacts?
Ans.4: The events that took place during the February Revolution and October Revolution were together known as the Russian Revolution of 1917. The major events and the effects of the October Revolution are as follows.
- To overcome the fear and prevent the Provisional Government from setting up a dictatorship, the Bolsheviks began igniting a spark among the followers against the government.
- A Military Revolutionary Committee was set up under the leadership of Leon Trotskii on 16 October 1917 to seize the power of the government.
- The violent uprisings began on 24 October. Troops sent by the government tried hard to protect the Winter Palace. Eventually, the entire city and all the military points were taken over by the committee.
- Riots and fights continued all over the country. Gradually, the Moscow-Petrograd area was completely under the control of the Bolsheviks.
The social impacts of the October Revolution were:
- In November 1917, the banks and industries were nationalised.
- The land of the nobility was seized by the peasants and land was no longer private property.
- Large houses were redistributed depending on the family sizes.
- New uniforms were introduced for soldiers and officials, the most famous among them being the budeonovka, the Soviet hat.
The political impacts of the Revolution were:
- The Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) was the new name adopted by the Bolshevik Party.
- The assembly elected in November 1917 was dismissed by Lenin and proper elections were conducted for the All Russian Congress of Soviets.
- The problems between the Bolsheviks and Germany regarding Brest Litovsk were resolved against the popular opposition.
- Eventually, Russia became a one-party state, with only the Bolshevik Party being the one to participate.
- Soon the Party grew autocratic and began punishing those who criticised them. The secret police were set up and trade unions were once again under control.
- The Bolshevik Party encouraged censorship as well, thereby keeping the populations in the dark.
Ques.5: What steps were taken by the Bolsheviks to make the Russian society socialist?
Ans.5: The Bolsheviks were the supporters of socialism from the very beginning. Once they took over the government of the country, they brought about certain changes to make the Russian society more socialistic. These were:
- Banks and industries were industrialised.
- Private lands were confiscated and made a socially controlled property.
- A centralised planning system was introduced, with the adoption of Five-Year Plans.
- Targets were set to be achieved during this five-year period.
- The first two five-year plans were across the years 1927-1932 and 1933-1938.
- The first two plans were devoted to the development of industries, with all the prices being fixed by the government.
- The economy of the country boomed and the industrial sector flourished.
- New cities came into existence.
- Extended schooling system was developed, whereby the workers and peasants could join universities.
- To facilitate working for women workers, creches were set up for their children inside the factories.
- Health care services became cheap.
- Better living conditions were provided to the workers.
However, there were certain negative implications of growth. The working conditions of the workers worsened owing to large scale industrial construction. The transition to and then following of socialism brought both positive and negative effects, owing to the limited resources that the government possessed.
Ques.6: What measures were adopted by Stalin to overcome the shortage of food grains?
Ans.6: During the first Five-Year Plan, people across Soviet Russia were facing the problems of a limited supply of food grains. As the government put a maximum price ceiling on the expenses at which the farm produce could be sold, peasants became reluctant to sell the grains at the existing prices. This led to severe food shortages.
When after the death of Lenin, Stalin took over the control of the Soviet government, he speculated that the rich traders and peasants were hoarding the produce, waiting for the prices to rise.
To overcome this situation, Stalin introduced the collectivisation programme in 1928. Initially, the grain-producing areas were toured and kulaks, the well-to-do peasants were raided. Even after the raids, the grain continued to fall short of the demands. The reason behind this was thought to be the relatively small size of landholdings, making them less productive. As the land was already distributed among the peasants, the size of the lands was small and hence difficult to modernise.
In order to modernise the farms, the land had to be taken back from peasants and converted into large farms that were under the government’s control. Hence, the small farms were now merged together and turned into large collective farms, known as kolkhoz. The peasants were now forced to work on these collective farms and shared the profit among themselves. However, the peasants did not like this and as a result, cattle were killed by them on a large scale, reducing their population by one-third until 1931. Such criticism was unwelcomed and these peasants were severely punished. Independent cultivation was not allowed, barring a few exceptions.
However, the collectivisation programme did not solve the problem of food grain shortage. Devastating famines took place due to the bad harvests of 1930-1933, where over 4 million people died.
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