Class 9 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers covered all the topics explained in The French Revolutions. Chapter 1 on The French Revolution begins with an overview of the French society in the late eighteenth century. The following section discusses the factors that led to the outbreak of the revolution and how France became a constitutional monarchy. The next section focuses on how France established itself as a republic. The French Revolution also discusses the role of women in the revolution, how the revolution led to the abolition of slavery and changed the everyday life of people.
The French Revolution Class 9 Chapter 1 deals with the long drawn struggle of the French citizens to claim their rights and establish a democracy.
Class 9 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short : 1-2 Marks
Ques.1: Who took over as the King of France in 1774?
Ans.1: Louis XVI of the Bourbon family took over as the king of France in 1774.
Ques.2: What estates was the French society divided into?
Ans.2: French society was divided into three estates:
- The Clergy: It consisted of all the members of the Church.
- The Nobility: This was the land-owning class.
- The Third Estate: It comprised of various different sections among itself. The top tier consisted of rich, land-owning businessmen, lawyers, officials, etc. who owned land and were educated. The second group consisted of artisans and peasants. The lowest and most marginalized section consisted of small peasants, servants, and landless labourers.
Ques.3: What privileges were enjoyed by the Clergy and the Nobility?
Ans.3: The Clergy and Nobility enjoyed privileges by birth. Both the estates were exempted from paying any kind of taxes and the Nobility further enjoyed the feudal privilege, whereby they extracted services from the peasants.
Ques.4: Name the authors of the following books.
- a) Two Treatises of Government
- b) The Spirit of the Laws
- c) The Social Contract
Ans.4: The authors of the following books were:
a) John Locke
c) Jean Jacques Rousseau
Ques. 5: What was the Estates General?
Ans.5: The Estates General was a political representative body that assisted the king to formulate new laws. All three estates elected their representatives for the Estates General.
Ques.6: How many members did the Estates General have? How many representatives did each estate have?
Ans.6: The Estates General had a total of 900 members . Out of these, 300 belonged to the clergy and nobility each. The remaining 300 were the representatives of the third estate.
Ques.7: Who led the National Assembly?
Ans.7: The National Assembly was led by Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes.
Ques.8: Who were the active and passive citizens?
Ans.8: The citizens who received the right to vote were regarded as the active citizens. i.e. those men above the age of 25 and who paid taxes equivalent to a labour’s three-say salary. And got the right to vote. On the other hand. those men who couldn’t pay such high taxes and the section of women who were denied the right to vote were regarded as the passive citizens.
Ques.9: What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man?
Ans.9: The Declaration of the Rights of Man was a list of all the rights that were described by the National Assembly as ‘natural and inalienable rights’, that each individual had. It was the duty of the state to safeguard these rights of the citizens. The major rights included the right to life, freedom of liberty, expression, and speech, and equality before the law.
Ques.10: Name the political symbols used in the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
Ans.10: The symbols used in the Declaration of the Rights of Man include;
- The broken chain
- The bundle of rods and fasces
- The eye within a triangle radiating light
- Snake biting its tail to form a ring
- Red Phrygian cap
- The winged woman
- The law tablet
Ques.11: What was Marseillaise?
Ans.11: Marseillaise was one of the very popular patriotic song’s during the French Revolution. The poet Roget de L’Isle composed this song. Later on, it was adopted as the national anthem of France.
Ques.12: What was the Jacobin club? Who was their leader?
Ans.12: Jacobin club was a political club formed in 1791 after the king entered into a secret alliance with Prussia. The club was formed to discuss the policies of the government. The members of the club included peasants, labourers, small shopkeepers, etc. The club was led by Maximilian Robespierre.
Ques.13: When did France become a republic?
Ans.13: The monarchy in France was abolished on 21 September 1792, and hence, France became a republic.
Ques.14: When and where was Louis XVI executed?
Ans.14: Louis XVI was publicly executed on 21 January 1793 at Place de la Concorde.
Ques.15: What period is referred to as the Reign of Terror?
Ans.15: The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. During this period, Robespierre’s government became extremely brutal and no criticism was tolerated.
Ques. 16: What was guillotine?
Ans.16: Guillotine was a device that consisted of two poles and a blade. It was used to behead people. It was designed by Dr. Guillotin and hence was named after him.
Ques.17: When was slavery abolished in French colonies?
Ans.17: Slavery was abolished in 1848 in the French colonies.
Ques.18: Who became the king of France in the year 1804?
Ans.18: Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself as the king of France in 1804.
Ques.19: Who wrote the influential pamphlet “What is the Third Estate?”
Ans.19: Abbe Sieyes wrote the influential pamphlet.
Ques.20: Name the famous political clubs formed by women.
Ans.20: The most famous women’s political clubs was the Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women.
Class 9 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Describe the storming of the Bastille.
Ans.1: The public of France had long been subjected to endless injustice and struggle. It was on the morning of 14 July 1789 that the revolt finally broke out. The military troops were placed in the city already. There was a rumor that the king was going to order the troops to fire bullets on the citizens. All the agitated citizens assembled themselves in front of the town hall and resisted these armies. These people broke into the government buildings to procure arms. A part of this crowd marched towards the Bastille, which was the fortress-prison. The citizens stormed into the prison, freed the locked-up prisoners, procured the arms and ammunitions found therein and fought the troops. The Bastille was also destroyed as it represented the despotic power of the king. This violent event came to be known as the ‘storming of the Bastille’.
Ques.2: What was the subsistence crisis?
Ans.2: France witnessed an increase in population from 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789. This increase in population caused an increased demand for food grains. However, food production did not rise accordingly so as to meetup the needs of the increased population. This led to an increase in the price of food grains. This, in turn, increased the bread prices in the nation, which was the staple food for the majority of the population.
Another problem arose from the fact that most of the population was employed on fixed wages. The wages did not rise with rising food prices, making it difficult for people to afford food. The resulted impact of all these problems was the subsistence crisis.
Ques.3: Which section of the society emerged during the revolution and how did they contribute to the revolution?
Ans.3: There was a section of the society that earned money with the help of overseas trade and manufacturing and textiles. This section eventually gained wealth and emerged as the middle class. This section of the society was wealthy and educated and the peasants and labourers depended on them to fight against the injustice being done to the society. As the middle class consisted of educated people like lawyers and administrative officials, they strongly condemned the concept of privilege by birth. They envisioned a society based on freedom and liberty, where there was equality and opportunity were for all. This section widely discussed the ideas put forth by philosophers like Locke and Rousseau. They also read aloud the poems and discussed ideas publicly for the people who could not read and write.Thus we can say that the middle-class greatly contributed to the success of the revolution.
Ques.4: State the major symbols used in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. What did each one of them stand for?
Ans.4: The major symbols used in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens include:
- The broken chain: Chains were used to tie citizens. The broken chain thus represented freedom.
- The bundle of rods or fasces: It propagated that strength lies in unity. It is easy to defeat one person, but not a massive group united with the same cause.
- The eye within a triangle radiating light: The eye represented knowledge and the radiating light aims at removing ignorance.
- Sceptre: It symbolized royal power.
- Snake biting its tail to form a ring: This ring symbolized eternity.
- Red Phrygian cap: This cap represented the freedom of a slave and was worn by them once they were free.
- Blue-white-red: These are the national colors of France.
- The winged woman personified the law.
- The Law Tablet: It represented equality before the law.
Ques.5: Describe the Reign of Terror.
Ans.5: The Reign of Terror refers to the period from 1793 to 1794. After the king was executed, and the Jacobins formed the government. Their leader, Maximilian Robespierre turned autocratic with the passing time and imposed severe and strict regulations in the country along with strong punishments. All the people who were against the republic, mostly noblemen and the clergy and those who were against the methods and ideas of Robespierre were arrested. They further faced trial in courts, and if found guilty, they were guillotined. The guillotine was a device that consisted of two poles and a blade. It was used to behead people. It was designed by Dr. Guillotin, hence was named after him.
Authoritarian laws placing a maximum ceiling on the wages and prices were passed, peasants were forced to sell their produce in the city at fixed prices. Foods like meat and bread were rationed, and all citizens were now forced to eat the equality bread, made of whole wheat. The words to address men and women were changed to citoyen and citoyenne, meaning citizen. Church buildings were confiscated and converted into offices or barracks.
Owing to his relentless policies, Robespierre was convicted in July 1794, and arrested and guillotined the very next day.
Ques.6: How did the revolution transform the lives of the citizens?
Ans.6: After the French Revolution, all the upcoming governments formulated laws that would promote and safeguard the right to freedom and liberty of citizens. The most important change adopted was the abolition of censorship. People were no longer prohibited from publicly discussing ideas. Old plays, newspapers, songs, etc. were allowed to be performed and published. Freedom of expression became a fundamental right. People could express their opinions freely. The press was no longer under any control or restrictions. Articles, reports, etc. could now be published freely and propagated. Criticism through print, i.e. publishing of opposing views was welcomed. These print copies spread across the country like wildfire, informing people of the current happenings in the nation.
Songs, plays, and discussions at public places became widely popular to reach the illiterate masses.
Class 9 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Describe in detail the outbreak of the French Revolution.
Ans.1: When Louis XVI inherited the throne of France, he stumbled upon an empty treasury barely enough to sustain the kingdom. In order to meet the expenses of maintaining the extravagant court, the public institutions, universities, and the nation, he had no other option but to increase the taxes.However, as the case was earlier this burden was solely expected to be borne by the third estate.
In order to introduce further new taxes, Louis XVI called the meeting of the Estates General, a representative political body to discuss and then pass the new taxes, on 5 May 1789. The Estates General consisted of a total of 900 members, of which 300 represented the clergy and nobility each. The remaining 300 were the representatives of the third estate. These were the educated and prosperous members of the third estate. Women, peasants, and artisans were not allowed in the Estates General. Traditionally, each estate in the Estates General had one vote per head. However, this time the representatives of the third estate demanded that each member should have one vote instead of the earlier practice. Upon the rejection of the demand put forward by the third estates, the representatives walked out of the meeting. They all assembled in an indoor tennis court on the 20th of June and decided to not move until they framed a constitution that would limit the powers of the king. This oath came to be popularly known as the “Tennis Court Oath”. They called themselves the National Assembly. Mirabeau and Abbé Sieyès led this Assembly.
When the constitution was being framed, the rest of France was chaotic and unstable. The agriculture was severely hit by bad winters, and the people faced a subsistence crisis. The food items were hoarded and the prices rose drastically. Around the very same time, the king positioned the troops in the city.Owing to all that was going on the angered citizens, therefore, on 14 July 1989 organized themselves into a militia and stormed the Bastille. The houses of the people belonging to the second estate were looted, resources were hoarded, and documents burnt.
As a result of this outbreak, the king was forced to recognize the National Assembly and accept the Constitution along with the changes it suggested. Hence, France became a constitutional monarchy, the feudal system was abolished and the members of clergy and nobility had to give up their privilege by birth. All the taxes were abolished and the land owned by the Church was confiscated. The government thus acquired assets worth 2 billion livres.
Ques.2: What were the results of the French Revolution?
Ans.2: After the outbreak of the French Revolution, certain major changes were brought in. The draft of the Constitution was presented by the National Assembly in 1791. The major reason behind the preparation of the constitution was to limit the powers of the monarch. The major results of the revolution included the following:
- The Constitution of 1791 stated that the administration will from then on consist of an executive, legislature, and the judiciary. The executive included King and other ministers. The judge was elected directly by the people.
- The legislature consisted of the National Assembly and electors who elected the Assembly.
- The National Assembly was bestowed with the responsibility to formulate the laws for the country. It was elected indirectly.
- The citizens elected a group of electors who were in turn responsible to elect the National Assembly.
- Another major change was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens. The Constitution began with the Declaration. The declaration stated that humans have certain inalienable and natural rights that can never be taken away. These rights included the right to life, equality before the law, freedom of speech, etc. It was the duty of the state to safeguard these rights.
However, it was not a win-win situation for all citizens of the country as only those men who belonged to the bracket of high taxpayers were allowed to vote and stand for elections known as the active citizens. The rest who were not allowed to vote were called the passive citizens.
Ques.3: How did France become a Republic? What was the contribution of the Jacobin club?
Ans.3: Even after the adoption of the constitution, there was still instability in the country. Louis XVI secretly held negotiations with Prussia to send in troops. Other kings in Europe too feared the advancements in France and were willing to send their troops into the country. but before the troops could be sent, the National Assembly declared war against Prussia and Austria. Hundreds and thousands of volunteers joined to fight in the battle. Patriotic songs were sung widely. Marseillaise was the most popular patriotic song and later was adopted as the national anthem of France.
Owing to the wars, there were massive losses that led to economic instability. Women were among the worst sufferers as they had to run the household as well as had to feed their families, as men were away fighting the wars. The revolution continued as the passive citizens no longer accepted their fate and demanded equality and the right to vote. Political clubs came into existence, providing people with a platform to plan their course of action and discuss government policies. The Jacobin club was the most popular club. Women participated in the revolution actively as well.
The Jacobin club consisted mostly of the members of the third estate. Small shopkeepers, shoemakers, artisans, servants, and daily-wage workers constituted the club. They were led by Maximilian Robespierre. To set themselves apart, a large group of people among the Jacobins started wearing striped trousers, without knee-breeches. They were soon recognized as sans-culottes, ‘those without knee-breeches’. They also wore a red cap, symbolizing liberty.
Then in 1792, an insurrection took place against the high prices and short supplies of food. Eventually, the king was held hostage and later the Assembly voted to imprison the royal family. Then, the elections were held and all men of age 21 years and above were granted the right to vote taking the first step towards equality.
The assembly thus elected came to be known as the Convention. It was on 21st September 1792 that the monarchy was established in France and it was declared as a republic. The following year, the court charged him of treason and Louis XVI was publicly executed on 21st January 1793.
Ques.4: Discuss the role of women in the French Revolution.
Ans.4: Women were among the worst sufferers during the French Revolution, especially the ones belonging to the third estate. They were denied the right to vote, and those belonging to the third estate had to work to earn a living when the men were away fighting wars. However, the wages they received were way less than what men were paid for the same jobs. They did jobs like laundering or worked as domestic help, sold fruits, vegetables, and flowers. They did not receive any education. They also had to work hard to run the households.
Eventually, women began forming their own clubs to discuss the issues facing them and to raise their voice against the injustice being done to them. The most famous of them were the Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women. Their major demand was to get recognized as active citizens and be given the right to vote. They considered it to be a way to represent their interests in the government.
With the coming of the new government to power, several laws were passed in the favour women. Schooling was made compulsory for girls and their fathers could no longer force them to marry. Women were granted the right to divorce their husbands. They could now train themselves for jobs and run businesses. However, their struggle did not end. During the Reign of Terror, women’s clubs and their political activities were banned, and women were arrested and executed without any lawful justification.
Women in France continued to struggle for another two hundred years before they were granted the right to vote in 1946 and finally could achieve an equal status in the society.
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