Physical Features of India Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers covers various types i.e. Very short, Short and Long questions, related to the topic so as to help the students with their preparation by helping them do an in-depth study of the topic.
The chapter deals with the physiographic divisions of India and their description. The physiographic features of the Himalayan mountains, Northern Plain, Peninsular Plateau, the Islands and deserts are discussed. The chapter discusses in detail the various subdivisions of these major physical features. It is also described how these various physiographic divisions provide India with variable physiographic and climatic features and how these topographic features complement each other.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions are Answered in detail by our team of experts which includes teachers and professionals. These solutions have been compiled in an easy to understand manner, keeping in mind, the perspective of strong, and weak students. We are providing NCERT Solutions for Class 9 all subjects which can be accessed by clicking here.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Very Short Type Questions: [1-2 marks]
Ques.1: What are the northern plains and the peninsular plateau composed of?
Ans.1: The Northern Plains are composed of the fertile alluvial soil and the Peninsular Plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with moderately rising hills and extensive valleys.
Ques.2: Name the six major physiographic divisions of India?
Ans.2: The major physiographic divisions of India are:
a) The Himalayan Mountains
b) The Northern Plains
c) The Peninsular Plateau
d) The Indian Desert
e) The Coastal Plains
f) The Islands
Ques.3: In which direction does the Himalayan range run?
Ans.3: The Himalayas run in the west-east direction.
Ques.4: Name the Himalayan mountain ranges which run parallel to each other.
Ans.4: The Himalayan mountain ranges running parallel to each other are:
a) Himadri or the Great/Inner Himalayas
b) Himachal or the Lesser Himalayas
c) Shiwaliks or the Lower/Outer Himalayas
Ques.5: Which is the highest mountain peak of Himalayas?
Ans.5: Mount Everest (8,848 meters)
Ques.6: Name the highest mountain peak in India.
Ans.6: Kanchenjunga (8,598 meters)
Ques.7: What are duns?
Ans.7: Duns can be defined as longitudinal valleys lying between the Lesser Himalayas and the Shiwaliks. For example, Dehradun, Kotli Dun and Patli Dun.
Ques.8: Name the important mountain ranges of the lesser Himalayas.
Ans.8: Pir Panjal range, Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat range.
Ques.9: Which river systems contribute to the formation of the Northern Plains?
Ans.9: The Northern Plains are formed by the river systems of the Indus, Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.
Ques.10: Which is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world?
Ans.10: Majuli in the Brahmaputra River is the largest known inhabited riverine island in the world.
Ques.11: What are distributaries?
Ans.11: The river channels that form after the deposition of the silt by rivers are known as distributaries.
Ques.12: Which are the tributaries of Indus?
Ans.12: The tributaries of Indus are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj.
Ques.13: The soil containing calcareous deposits is called ________.
Ques.14: Name the two divisions of the Peninsular Plateau.
Ans.14: The two broad divisions of the Peninsular Plateau are the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
Ques.15: Which rivers drain the Central Highlands?
Ans.15: The rivers Chambal, Sind, Betwa and Ken drain the Central Highlands.
Ques.16: The eastward extensions of the Central Highlands are _____and _____.
Ans.16: Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand
Ques.17: Which river drains the Chota Nagpur Plateau?
Ans.17: Damodar river
Ques.18: Name a few prominent mountain peaks of the Western and Eastern Ghats.
Ans.18: Mountain peaks of Western Ghats include Anai Mudi (2,695 meters) and the Doda Betta (2,637 meters), and the prominent mountain peak of the Eastern Ghats is Mahendragiri (1,501 meters).
Ques.19: Name the prominent hill ranges of north-east India.
Ans.19: The Garo, Khasi, and the Jaintia.
Ques.20: Which are the sections of the Western and Eastern Coastal plains?
Ans.20: Western Ghats: Konkan coast (Mumbai – Goa), Kannad Plain, and the Malabar coast
Eastern Ghats: Northern Circar and the Coromandel Coast
Ques.21: Which island in Lakshadweep has a bird sanctuary?
Ans.21: The Pitti Island
Ques.22: Which is the administrative centre of Lakshadweep islands?
Ques.23: Name the only active volcano in India. Where is it situated?
Ans.23: The only active volcano is situated on the Barren Island, in Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands.
Ques.24: Name the largest saltwater lake in India. Where is it located?
Ans.24: The largest saltwater lake in India is the Chilika Lake. It is situated in Odisha.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Short Answer Type Questions: 2-4 Marks
Ques.1: Write short notes on the following:
a) Himadri: This is the northernmost hill range in the Himalayan mountains. It is also known as the Great or the Inner Himalayas. This is among one of the most continuous range in the world with an average elevation of 6,000 meters. The prominent peaks like Mount Everest form a part of this range. The core of this range is formed from granite and the folds are asymmetrical. This range is completely covered with snow and witnesses several glaciers.
b) Himachal: The range lying to the south of the Himadri is the Himachal range or the Lesser Himalayas. The average width of this range is 50 km and the elevation ranges between 3,700 and 4,500 meters. The Pir Panjal is the longest mountain range. Other prominent ranges include the Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat ranges. Some of the most famous hill stations also form a part of this range. For example, Kangra and Kullu Valley.
c) Shivalik: The Shiwaliks is the outermost range of the Himalayas. It is also known as the Lower Himalayas. The width of the range is between 10-50 km, and the elevation ranges between 900 and 1,100 meters. This range contains the sediments brought down by the perennial rivers originating in the Himadri. Various longitudinal valleys lying between the Himachal and the Shiwaliks, called the Duns are also present. Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and Patli Dun are some of its examples.
d) Purvanchal: The Purvanchal mountains form the eastern-most boundary of the Himalayas. These mountains spread along the eastern boundary of India. These are made of sedimentary rocks, mostly sandstone. The important hills include the Patkai hills, the Naga hills, the Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.
Ques.2: What is the regional division of Himalayas? Explain.
Ans.2: Regionally, the Himalayas are divided into 4 types i.e. the Punjab Himalayas, Kumaon Himalayas, Nepal Himalayas, and the Assam Himalayas. These divisions are done in the direction from west to east. The Punjab Himalayas lie between the Indus and Satluj rivers. The Kumaon Himalayas are regionally known as Kashmir or Himachal Himalayas. The Nepal Himalayas lie between the Kali and Teesta rivers. The Assam Himalayas lie between the Teesta and Dihang rivers.
Ques.3: Which are the major divisions of the Northern Plains?
Ans.3: The Northern Plains are broadly divided into:
a) Punjab Plains: These plains are formed by the Indus river and its tributaries. Most of these plains lie within Pakistan. This plain is dominated by the doabs.
b) Ganga Plain: As the name suggests, these plains are formed by the tributaries of Ganda, namely Ghaggar and Teesta. It covers the states of Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, and partly Jharkhand.
c) Brahmaputra Plain: This plain lies in northeast India, particularly Assam. It Is formed by the river Brahmaputra.
Ques.4: What are corals?
Ans.4: Corals are colonies of short-Lived microscopic organisms. They are found in shallow, mud-free and warm waters. They secrete calcium carbonate which along with their skeletons helps in the formation of the coral reefs. The reefs are broadly of three different types: barrier reef, fringing reed, and atolls. For example, the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. Also, the circular-shaped or horse-shoe shaped reefs are known as atolls.
Ques.5: Write a short note on the Coastal Plains of India.
Ans.5: The coastal plains are one of the major physiographic divisions of India. They are narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea in the west and Bay of Bengal in the east. The western coastal plains lie between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The northern part of these plains is known as the Konkan coast. The central stretch is the Kannad plain, and the southernmost plain is called the Malabar Coast. The eastern coastal plains lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The northern part is known as the Northern Circar and the southern part is called the Coromandel coast. These plains are wider and pressed flat. All the rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal form deltas on this plain. Chilika lake is one of the most important lakes found in this plain.
Class 9 Geography Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers – Long Answer Type Questions: 4-6 Marks
Ques.1: Discuss the importance of the Himalayan mountains as a major physiographic division of India.
Ans.1: The Himalayas are a major physiographic division of India. Its importance can be gauged from the following reasons:
a) The Himalayas serve as the climatic barriers for India. They block the cold winds coming from Siberia, thereby protecting the country from an inhospitable cold climate. They also help by deflecting the rain-bearing winds coming from the Bay of Bengal, thereby causing rains on the Northern Plains.
b) They separate India from the India subcontinent. They also provide effective protection against any infiltrations.
c) Majority of the perennial rivers of India originate from these mountains. These rivers provide a year-round supply of water and are also a source of hydel power. These rivers also have some of the species of animals exclusive to India. For example, the Gangetic dolphin.
d) The Himalayas also have some of the richest green and dense forests housings which are great for flora and fauna.
e) Some of the most beautiful tourist destinations in India are also a part of the Himalayan ranges. For example, Kangra in Himachal Pradesh, Kullu Valley in Kashmir, Darjeeling in West Bengal, etc.
Ques.2: Discuss the importance of the Northern Plains.
Ans.2: The Northern Plains are one of the most significant physiographic features of India. They are important for the following reasons:
a) The Northern Plains are formed by the fertile alluvial deposits brought down by the rivers. This makes the soil in the region extremely fertile, making is highly suitable for cultivation.
b) Most of the grain production of India comes from this region. Crops like wheat, rice, sugarcane, etc. are grown in this region. Hence, this region is also known as the ‘granary of India’.
c) This region also receives sufficient rainfall and is drained by perennial rivers, thereby ensuring year-round supply for water.
d) As the region is flat and levelled, wells, canals, and tube wells can be easily built.
e) Being the most fertile region in the country and highly suitable for cultivation, this region supports a high population. The states falling in this region, like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal have highest population densities among other states in the country.
Ques.3: Discuss the main features of the Peninsular Plateau.
Ans.3: The main features of the Peninsular Plateau include:
a) The Peninsular Plateau is made up of crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is among the oldest landmasses of earth.
b) The plateau is broadly divided into two parts: Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
c) The Central Highlands lie to the north of the Narmada river. The mountain ranges of Vindhyan and Aravalli form the northern and northwestern boundary of the Central Highlands respectively. The rivers of the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and the Ken drain this region, flowing from southwest to northeast. The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The Chota Nagpur plateau is its even further extension.
d) The Deccan plateau forms the southern extension of the Peninsular Plateau. It is triangular. The Satpura range lies at its north, and the Kaimur and Maikal range in the east. The Deccan Plateau extends to Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong, and North Cachar Hills in the East.
e) The Western and Eastern Ghats form an important part of the Peninsular plateau. The Western Ghats are continuous and the Eastern Ghats are discontinuous by nature. The average elevation of the Western Ghats is 900-1,600 meters and that of the Eastern Ghats is 600 meters.
f) A large part of the Peninsular is made up of the black soils which are of volcanic origin. This region is also popularly known as the Deccan Trap.
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