CBSE Syllabus | NCERT Syllabus | Business Studies Class 12 NCERT Syllabus

CLASS XII

Semester III
Principles and Functions of Management

Semester IV
Business Finance and Marketing

Semester III
Principles and Functions of Management

Unit I:Nature and Significance of Management

  • Management – concept, objectives, importance.
  • Nature of management; Management as Science, Art, Profession.
  • Levels of management – top, middle supervisory (First level).
  • Management functions – planning, organising, staffing, directing and controlling.
  • Coordination – nature and importance.




Unit II: Principles of Management

  • Principles of Management – meaning, nature and significance.
  • Fayol’s principles of management.
  • Taylor’s Scientific Management – Principles and Techniques.

Unit III: Business Environment

  • Business Environment – meaning and importance.
  • Dimensions of Business Environment – Economic, Social, Technological, Political and Legal.
  • Economic Environment in India; Impact of Government policy changes on business and industry, with special reference to adoption of the policies of liberalization privatization and globalisation.

Unit IV: Planning

  • Meaning, features, importance, limitations.
  • Planning process.
  • Types of Plans – Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget, Programme.




Unit V: Organising

  • Meaning and importance.
  • Steps in the process of organising.
  • Structure of organization – functional, and divisional.
  • Formal and informal organisation.
  • Delegation: meaning elements and importance.
  • Decentralization: meaning and importance.
  • Difference between delegation and decentralisation.

Unit VI: Staffing

  • Meaning, need and importance of staffing.
  • Staffing as a part of Human Resources Management.
  • Steps in staffing process.
  • Recruitment – meaning and sources.
  • Selection – meaning and process.
  • Training and Development – meaning, need, methods – on the job and off the job methods of training.

Unit VII: Directing

  • Meaning, importance and principles.
  • Elements of Direction:
    – Supervision – meaning and importance
    – Motivation – meaning and importance, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; Financial and nonfinancial incentives.
    – Leadership – meaning, importance; qualities of a good leader.
    – Communication – meaning and importance, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication.




Unit VIII: Controlling

  • Meaning and importance.
  • Relationship between planning and controlling.
  • Steps in the process of control.
  • Techniques of controlling.

Semester IV
Business Finance and Marketing 

Unit IX: Business Finance

  • Business finance – meaning, role, objectives of financial management.
  • Financial planning – meaning and importance.
  • Capital Structure – meaning and factors.
  • Fixed and Working Capital – meaning and factors affecting their requirements.

Unit X: Financial Markets

  • Concept of Financial Market: Money Market – nature instruments;
  • Capital market: nature and types – primary and secondary market.
  • Distinction between capital market and money market.
  • Stock Exchange – meaning, functions, NSEI, OCTEI, Trading Procedure.
  • Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – Objectives, Functions.




Unit XI: Marketing

  • Marketing – meaning, functions, role.
  • Distinction between marketing and selling.
  • Marketing mix – concept and elements:
    – Product – nature, classification, branding, labeling and packaging
    – Physical distribution: meaning, role; Channels of distribution,
    – meaning, types, factors, determining choice of channels.
    – Promotion – meaning and role, promotion mix, Role of Advertising and personal selling; objections to Advertising. – Price: factors influencing pricing.

Unit XII: Consumer Protection

  • Importance of consumer protection.
  • Consumer rights.
  • Consumer responsibilities.
  • Ways and means of consumer protection – Consumer awareness and legal redressal with special reference to Consumer protection Act.
  • Role of consumer organizations and NGOs.

Unit XIII: Entrepreneurship Development

  • Concept, Functions and Need.
  • Entrepreneurship Characteristics and Competencies.
  • Process of Entrepreneurship Development.
  • Entrepreneurial Values, Attitudes and Motivation – Meaning and Concept.

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